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The one agency that may have suffered most from Johnson’s displeasure was the National Science Foundation, whose constant-dollarbudget fell from $414 million in fiscal year 1967 to $269 million in 1970, and thereafter began to rise again, although slowly. Reductions in NSF’s budgetresulted from decisions made by the Johnson administration, the Nixon administration, and congressional actions. During the five-year period from 1965through 1969, the Bureau of the Budget reduced NSF’s budget request by anaverage of more than 15 percent; during those same year, Congress reduced that request by an additional 12 percent on average. Comparable average reductionsduring the Kennedy administration were 8 and 18 percent, respectively.

Only the National Institutes of Health were spared the budget axe during these years, with their basic research budget increasingcontinuously, except during fiscals years 1971 and 1973.

Shifting support patterns, shifting perceptions

During the Vietnam era, the academic community believed that the science-government compact forged in the late 1940s andnurtured through the Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy administrations was being abrogated by the federal government. Certainly, the pluralistic research supportsystem, accepted by default after Vannevar Bush’s proposal of a single federal basic research support agency failed to materialize, was seriously weakenedduring the Johnson and Nixon years. The pluralistic system permitted scientists and engineers to submit funding proposals to morethan one federal organization. For example, NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation all supported (and still support) research inthe mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences; basic research in the biological sciences was (and is) supported by the National Institutes of Health,the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Agriculture. According to the pluralistic concept, the fact that more than one federal agencyprovided funds for university basic research assured a fair hearing in Washington for any good idea advanced by a competent investigator. An importantcorollary was that the National Science Foundation, whose primary mission was to support meritorious basic research, would act as a “balance wheel” to assure anequitable distribution of basic research support among scientific disciplines. The decrease in federal support during the Johnson and Nixon administrations,along with congressional fragmentation, undercut this balance-wheel concept.

In fiscal year 1967, the National Science Foundation ranked second among the five principal federal agencies supporting basicresearch, preceded by the National Institutes of Health and followed, respectively, by NASA, the AEC/ERDA/DoE, and the Department of Defense. A yearlater, the NSF ranked last, where it remained until fiscal year 1972, when it again moved into second place. Meanwhile, the basic research budgets of NASA,the AEC and the DoD continued to decline. As these agencies cut back or eliminated specific basic research programs, the pressure on the NationalScience Foundation to pick up support increased beyond its means to do so. For example, rocks from the moon gathered by expeditions supported by NASA were distributed to several universities—butwithout financial support for their analysis. Thus, the affected geologists turned to NSF for support.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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