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Water is an abundant substance on earth and covers 71 percent of the earth's surface......

Water

Introduction

Water is an abundant substance on earth and covers 71 percent of the earth's surface. Earth’s water consists of three percent freshwater and 97 percent saltwater. All living organisms require water in order to live. In fact, they are mostly comprised of water. Water is also important for other reasons: as an agent of erosion it changes the morphology of the land; it acts as a buffer against extreme climate changes when present as a large body of water, and it helps flush away and dilute pollutants in the environment.

The physical characteristics of water influence the way life on earth exists. The unique characteristics of water are:

  1. Water is a liquid at room temperature and over a relatively wide temperature range (0 -100°C). This wide range encompasses the annual mean temperature of most biological environments.
  2. A relatively large amount of energy is required to raise the temperature of water (i.e., it has a high heat capacity ). As a result of this property, large bodies of water act as buffers against extreme fluctuations in the climate, water makes as an excellent industrial coolant, and it helps protect living organisms against sudden temperature changes in the environment.
  3. Water has a very high heat of vaporization. Water evaporation helps distribute heat globally; it provides an organism with the means to dissipate unwanted heat.
  4. Water is a good solvent and provides a good medium for chemical reactions, including those that are biologically important. Water carries nutrients to an organism's cells and flushes away waste products, and it allows the flow of ions necessary for muscle and nerve functions in animals.
  5. Liquid water has a very high surface tension , the force holding the liquid surface together. This, along with its ability to adhere to surfaces, enables the upward transport of water in plants and soil by capillary action.
  6. Solid water (ice) has a lower density than liquid water at the surface of the earth. If ice were denser than liquid water, it would sink rather than float, and bodies of water in cold climates would eventually freeze solid, killing the organisms living in them.

Freshwater comprises only about three percent of the earth's total water supply and is found as either surface water or groundwater. Surface water starts as precipitation. That portion of precipitation which does not infiltrate the ground is called runoff . Runoff flows into streams and lakes.

The drainage basin from which water drains is called a watershed . Precipitation that infiltrates the ground and becomes trapped in cracks and pores of the soil and rock is called groundwater . If groundwater is stopped by an impermeable barrier of rock, it can accumulate until the porous region becomes saturated. The top of this accumulation is known as the water table . Porous layers of sand and rock through which groundwater flows are called aquifers .

Most freshwater is locked up in frozen glaciers or deep groundwater where it is not useable by most living organisms. Only a tiny fraction of the earth's total water supply is therefore usable freshwater. Still, the amount available is sufficient to maintain life because of the natural water cycle. In the water cycle, water constantly accumulates, becomes purified, and is redistributed. Unfortunately, as human populations across the globe increase, their activities threaten to overwhelm the natural cycle and degrade the quality of available water.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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