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Another science-related foreign policy initiative of the Kennedy administration in India survived, however. The United States accepted the Indian invitation to “adopt” one of five new Indian Institutes of Technology, and the U.S. adopted IIT/Kanpur. Under contract with USAID, the United States assembled a consortium of American universities led by MIT to send scientific experts to IIT/Kanpur, which would develop into one of the premier institutes of higher education in India. The American effort in India was part of a broader program focused on developing countries as a means of countering Soviet influence in the Third World.

Congressional initiatives

Both houses of Congress took steps in reaction to Sputnik to improve their oversight of executive-branch science policy, particularly with respect to space. In July 1958, the Senate established a Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and the House of Representatives established a Committee on Science and Astronautics. (In 1973, the latter committee would be renamed the Committee on Science and Technology.) Possibly because of its broader substantive scope, the House committee proved to be the more effective over the years in helping to shape national science policy. U.S. House of Representatives, Towards the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-79 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980).

The post-Sputnik surge of public interest and concern about science led to another abortive attempt to establish a unitary, institutional federal base for the development and implementation of American policy. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey (D-MN) introduced legislation to establish a cabinet-level Department of Science and Technology that would have included the NSF, AEC, NASA, and the National Bureau of Standards. Humphrey’s legislation failed in large measure because of opposition by the scientific establishment.

Following the creation of the Office of Science and Technology, Congress gained a measure of access to the presidential science advisory system. Although relations between the science advisor, OST, and the corresponding congressional oversight committees remained cordial throughout the remainder of the Kennedy administration, Congress—particularly the House of Representatives—continued to assert its own independent perspective. A series of hearings beginning in October 1963, organized by the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics under the chairmanship of Emilio Q. Daddario (D-CT), sought to “identify problems in the Government-science relationship and to assign priorities for dealing with them.” U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, Towards a Science Policy for the United States . Committee Report, 91 st Congress, 2 nd Session, October 1970. Their principal lasting result was to establish the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, and particularly its Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, as an effective participant in the development of U.S science policy. In 1965, the subcommittee began a series of hearings focused on the NSF, which led to the first substantive amendments in 1968 to the NSF Act of 1950. The most significant outcomes of these hearings explicitly included the social sciences among disciplines qualifying for NSF support, and gave the NSF authority to support applied as well as basic research.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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