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One month after that—on December 6, 1957—a Vanguard rocket attempting to launch the United States’ first satellite exploded after takeoff. Finally, on January 31, 1958, Explorer I was successfully launched by an Army Jupiter rocket.


Conditions were clearly ripe in post-Sputnik 1957 for the establishment of an effective presidential science advisory system. The Bureau of the Budget, frustrated at the continuing refusal of the National Science Board to coordinate policy as legislated by the National Science Foundation Act and reiterated by Executive Order in 1954, was intent on establishing an alternative mechanism in the White House or the Executive Office of the President. Author interview with Elmer Staats, December 29, 1986 (unpublished). And Eisenhower was predisposed to having an expert, non-governmental body to counterbalance the Pentagon.

PSAC members were appointed for four-year rotating terms. Virtually all charter members had had extensive experience working with the federal government during World War II, and most were well acquainted with one another. The charter members of PSAC were: Robert F. Barker, California Institute of Technology (physics); William D. Baker, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physical chemistry); John Bardeen, University of Illinois (physics); Lloyd W. Berkner, Associated Universities, Inc. (physics); Hans W. Bethe, Cornell University (physics); James H. Doolittle, Shell Oil Co. (aeronautical engineering); James B. Fisk, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physics); Caryl B. Haskins, Carnegie Institution of Washington (genetics, physiology); Charles C. Lauritsen, California Institute of Technology (physics); James R. Killian, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (administration); George B. Kistiakowsky, Harvard University (physical chemistry); Edwin H. Land, Polaroid Corp. (physics); Edward M. Purcell, Harvard University (physics); Isador I. Rabi, Columbia University (physics); H.P. Robertson, California Institute of Technology (mathematical physics); Jerome B. Wiesner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (electrical engineering); Herbert York, Livermore Laboratory (physics); and Jerrold R. Zacharias, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (physics); Bacher, Fisk, Haskins, Land, Lauritsen, Rabi, and Zacharias were carryovers from SAC/ODM. David Z. Beckler served as executive secretary to SAC/ODM from the Truman administration and as executive secretary of PSAC until it was abolished by President Richard Nixon in January 1973. William T. Golden, ed., Science Advice to the President (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), viii-ix. They comprised a remarkably elite, homogeneous group. Among the sixteen members (including Killian), nine came from private Eastern universities (three from MIT, two from Harvard, one each from Cornell, Columbia, and the Rockefeller University); one from the Associated Universities, Inc., a consortium of Eastern universities which that managed the Brookhaven National Laboratory; two from the California Institute of Technology, and one from the University of California, Berkeley. All members of SAC/ODM and PSAC, with their affiliations and terms of service, are given in Golden, ibid., vii-ix. The remaining four came from Bell Laboratories (two), Land Polaroid, and Shell Oil. Ten were physicists, two physical chemists, two engineers, and one a biophysicist.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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