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How much you say in answer to any one question will probably be determined by your purpose and the reason that article is valuable.

Steps for writing a summary:

  • Writing a summary begins with annotating the original article. After you've skimmed the article quickly to get the main idea of the paper, read to find the answers to the Twelve Essential Questions for Summarizing an Article. Highlight the answers in the text or make notes in the margin of the text.
  • Without directly quoting the article, write a sentence that tells why the article is valuable or noteworthy. Then write answers to the key questions without worrying at all about the kind of sentences you write. Just get the answers down.
  • Go back and wordsmith the answers (rewrite them with a more polished, precise style). Divide the summary into paragraphs that have one topic and point per paragraph. Whenever you change topics or say something substantially new or different about a current topic, create a new paragraph.
  • Polish the sentences to eliminate unnecessary words. At the same time, put in extra transitional words. Summaries, because of their brevity, have to have more "pointers" such as "first," "second," "in contrast," and "however" to connect the content.

Sample of using the 12 essential questions to generate a summary

Jagdt, Bjorn, Warncke, K. Auer, H., and Rudiger, H. Sleep deprivation does not induce sister chromatid exchange in humans. Mutation Research 361 (1996): 11-15.

What was the topic of the article? Validity of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) for measuring genotoxic exposures.
What was the purpose of the research? What question, problem, or issue did the article address in relation to the topic? The research was conducted to determine whether results of a preliminary study by Bamezai and Kumar could be verified. In the preliminary study, dramatic increases of SCE were reported after sleep deprivation,
How was the problem/question/issue defined? Whether there were significant deviations between the SCE rates of workers who were sleep deprived and normal sleep.
Were any assumptions unusual or questionable? Previous genotoxic exposures would not have elevated the mean baseline of persons in the studies.
Why is the question, problem, or issue important? Widely used procedures might give faulty results and misjudge genotoxic exposures in the workplace.
What work has been done or what situation exists that motivated the research? Unusual results after sleep deprivation suggested that SCE levels might be confounded when occupational medicine studies involved night shift workers.
What experimental design was used? Comparison of 20 persons’ SCE levels during control and experimental periods under different sleep behaviors.
What methods were used? Individual baseline of SCE was estimated by the mean of the SCE per metaphase of two subsequent days (control period) and compared to that of a test period two weeks later, plus questionnaires about sleep and dietary habits.
What were the results? The rates were slightly different, but the differences were not statistically significant.
How were the results interpreted? The study did not verify the results of the earlier study. Differences in conditions of cell cultures might explain the outcomes.
What did the researcher conclude? The effect of sleep deprivation on SCE, if there is one, would be in the range of normal day-to-day variance, and does not have to be taken into account when SCE is used for genotoxic monitoring at workplaces.
Why were YOU reading this paper?Reason article is valuable/noteworthy The article by Bjorn and others confirms that using sister chromatid exchange to measure genotoxic exposures in the workplace produces reliable results for men and women who work night shifts as well as for ordinary daytime workers.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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