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Prior to typing in your first reference, please make sure that your margins and indentation are correct. See our other chapters on setting up your references prior to following the specific steps and screenshots in this chapter.

After you have followed the steps to creating a References page, we are now ready to begin typing in a reference. Readers should note that the word, References, is written in all capital letters below. The all capital use of REFERENCES is appropriate for dissertations and for theses, but not for manuscripts. The word should be typed as References for manuscripts.

We will begin our references with a journal article written by a single author. If we have followed the previous set of steps and screenshots correctly, our reference will automatically have a hanging indent. You will see that in the second and third rows of this reference.

Let’s begin with the author’s last name and go space by space through this reference.

You will note that a comma is present after the author’s last name. This comma is followed by a space and then the initial of the author’s first name (P), followed by a period. After the P. is a space, followed by the initial of the author’s second name (F), followed by a period.

After the Zoda, P. F. is a space. Then the year of the published journal article is typed, surrounded by parentheses. You will note that the second parentheses, the ), is followed by a period and then a space. Readers should ensure that they space after the comma following the author’s last name; a space after the period following author’s first initial; a space after the period following the author’s second initial (when present); and a space after the period following the second parentheses.

Now we will make that the title of our journal article is correctly typed. For journal article titles, the first word should be capitalized, as well as proper nouns. Moreover, when a colon is present in the title, as it is below, the first word following the colon should be capitalized. The other words in the title are not capitalized when they are typed in the References list.

At the end of the title of the journal article, a period should be present. This punctuation should be followed by a single space. Should the journal article title end with a question mark, as part of the title, the ? will suffice in lieu of the period.

After the title of the journal article has been typed, the name of the journal should be typed and placed in italics. You will note below that the journal name has been correctly typed but it is not in italics. Because the volume number should also be in italics, we recommend that you type in the journal name and volume number first. Then highlight or block both parts and italicize them at the same time.

In the screen below we have highlighted the journal name and the volume number.

Next we will italicize this information. Using the 97-2003 version of Word, the I icon below will place the highlighted material in italics. Using the 2007 version of Word, the I icon will be on the Home screen.

Clicking on the I or italics icon will then result in the journal name and volume number being placed in italics. See the screen below.

In this particular journal citation, we have the issue number of the journal article present. Note that the issue number is placed immediately after the italicized volume number with no space present. The issue number is placed within parentheses. Issue numbers are required when the journal begins each new issue at page 1. For journals that continue numbering the pages of their second and third issues after the last page number of the previous issue, then issue numbers are not necessary. What the information of 5 (2) indicates is that this Zoda article is in the second issue of this journal for the 2010 year. Moreover, the 5 (2) information connotes that pages 7-19 are also present for the first issue, however, those pages are not the Zoda article.

After typing in the issue number, when relevant, a space is placed after the comma that follows the parentheses. Then the beginning page number of the reference is typed, followed by a – and then the ending page number of the reference. Note that no space is present.

A period is then placed after the ending page number of the journal article.

APA now requires that the doi (Digital Object Identifier) be placed at the end of journal article citations, when they are present. If the doi is not present on the journal article, check at www.crossref.org to see if the article has a doi. In this particular article, a doi is present. Note that the doi is written in lower case letters and followed by a colon and then the rest of the doi. A space is not present between the colon and the doi information. A space is placed, however, after the period following the page numbers. Do not place a period at the end of the doi as that would make the doi incorrect.

You now have a correctly written, in APA 6th edition style, a journal article with a single author.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Making microsoft word user-friendly for dissertations, theses, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Jun 21, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11334/1.1
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