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Ncpea education leadership review: portland conference special edition, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011)

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this module is published in the Education Leadership Review: Special Portland Conference Issue (October 2011) , ISSN 1532-0723. Formatted and edited in Connexions by Theodore Creighton and Brad Bizzell, Virginia Tech and Janet Tareilo, Stephen F. Austin State University.

Purposes of the study

The educational reform movement in the United States has dramatically changed the role, the relationships, and the responsibilities of the superintendent of schools over the past decade. The involvement and mandates from federal and state governments have eroded local autonomy. Voices from the general public, along with business leaders and political leaders-- from the President of the United States to members of Congress are-- demanding higher accountability and increased achievement for all public schools. The lackluster performance by students on national (NAEP) and international (PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS) assessments has also raised questions regarding the ability of this country to compete in a global economy. Demands for effective leadership at the superintendent level have never been greater.

The quality and effectiveness of PK-12 public education has been a focus of education critics for decades. Politicians, business leaders, and even some educators have consistently questioned the efficacy of public schools. More recently, these stakeholders have focused their criticisms on school leadership and, in particular, university principal preparation programs.

Some researchers have gained prominence by questioning how well university educational leadership programs prepare principals (Brown, 2006; Darling-Hammond, LaPoint&Meyerson, 2005; Levine, 2005). Levine called for significant changes in the content, activities, and structure of principal preparation programs. Other groups such as the Southern Regional Education Board (2005) highlighted perceived deficiencies in principal preparation program and pushed its agenda for substantial educational leadership program reforms. In some states, these reform efforts have led to state-mandated initiatives designed to increase both the content and rigor of principal preparation program requirements.

While most recent research has examined primarily school-level leadership, the next logical step is to extend the reform focus to district-level leader preparation. Already, researchers are documenting the role of effective superintendents in school improvement and increased student achievement.

Marzano and Waters (2009) identify what superintendents both need to know and do to improve schools and increase student achievement. Superintendent preparation programs and educational leadership professors will undoubtedly come under the reform microscope. As the quality of superintendent preparation programs is examined, many stakeholders will participate in the superintendent preparation debate. One group which must be heard during this discussion is public school superintendents themselves. As district leaders, they are uniquely positioned to provide a critical perspective into effective district-level leadership.

Questions & Answers

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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
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what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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