# 0.7 Covalent bonding and electron pair sharing  (Page 5/8)

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There is a very interesting consistency in these molecular formulae: in each case, the number of hydrogen atoms is two more than twice the number of carbon atoms, so that each compound has a molecular formula like C n H 2n+2 . (Try it out!) This suggests that there are strong similarities in the valences of the atoms involved which should be understandable in terms of our valence shell electron pair sharing model.

Since each H atom can only bond to a single other atom, the carbon atoms in each molecules must be directly bonded together. In the easiest example of ethane, the two carbon atoms are bonded together, and each carbon atom is in turn bonded to three hydrogen atoms. This would fit our model of valence, since each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms (three hydrogens and the other carbon). By sharing an electron pair with each of those four atoms, each carbon atom fills its valence shell with eight electrons. This example was not difficult.

In most other cases, it is not so trivial to determine which atoms are bonded to which. This is because there may be multiple possibilities which satisfy all the atomic valences. As the number of atoms and electrons increases, it may also be difficult to determine whether each atom has an octet of electrons in its valence shell. We need a system of counting the valence electrons which makes it easy for us to see these features more clearly. To start, we create a notation for each atom which displays the number of valence electrons in the unbonded atom explicitly. In this notation, carbon and hydrogen look like

where the dots represent the single valence electron in hydrogen and the four valence electrons in carbon. Note that the C atom valence electrons are all unpaired. This is because we know that the valence of a C atom is four, so there are four valence electrons available to be shared with other atoms.

Using this notation, it is now fairly easy to represent the shared electron pairs and the carbon atom valence shell octets in methane and ethane. For each pair of bonded atoms, we share an electron pair from the valence shell electrons. This gives for methane and ethane:

Recall that each shared pair of electrons represents a chemical bond. These drawing are examples of what are called “Lewis structures,” after G.N. Lewis who first invented this notation. These structures reveal, at a glance, which atoms are bonded to which, so we call this the “structural formula” of the molecule. There are two things to check about the electrons in the structural formula. First, we cannot have created or lost any valence electrons. For example, in ethane we started with four valence electrons from each carbon and one valence electron from each hydrogen, for a total of 14 electrons. The structural formula of ethane drawn above has 14 valence electrons, so that is correct. Second, if we have satisfied the valence of each atom, each carbon should have an octet of electrons and each hydrogen should have two electrons. We can also easily count the number of valence shell electrons around each atom in the bonded molecule and verify that this is also correct.

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
is it 3×y ?
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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