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As a third example, we consider fluorine, F 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } } {} . In this case, we find that the ionization energy of molecular fluorine is 1515 kJ/mol, which is smaller than the ionization energy of a fluorine atom, 1681 kJ/mol. This seems inconsistent with the bonding orbital concept we have developed above, which states that the electrons in the bond have a lower energy than in the separated atoms. If the electron being ionized has a higher energy in F 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } } {} than in F, why is F 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } } {} a stable molecule? Apparently, we need a more complete description of the molecular orbital concept of chemical bonding.

To proceed further, we compare bond energies in several molecules. Recall that the bond energy (or bond strength) is the energy required to separate the bonded atoms. We observe that the bond energy of N 2 size 12{N rSub { size 8{2} } } {} is 956 kJ/mol. This is very much larger than the bond energy of H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , 458 kJ/mol, and of F 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , which is 160 kJ/mol. We can account for the unusually strong bond in nitrogen using both our valence shell electron pair sharing model and our electron orbital descriptions. A nitrogen atom has three unpaired electrons in its valence shell, because the three 2p electrons distribute themselves over the three 2p orbitals, each oriented along a different axis. Each of these unpaired electrons is available for sharing with a second nitrogen atom. The result, from valence shell electron pair sharing concepts, is that three pairs of electrons are shared between two nitrogen atoms, and we call the bond in N 2 size 12{N rSub { size 8{2} } } {} a “triple bond.” It is somewhat intuitive that the triple bond in N 2 size 12{N rSub { size 8{2} } } {} should be much stronger than the single bond in H 2 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } } {} or in F 2 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } } {} .

Now consider the molecular orbital description of bonding in N 2 size 12{N rSub { size 8{2} } } {} . Each of the three 2p atomic orbitals in each nitrogen atom must overlap to form a bonding molecular orbital, if we are to accommodate three electron pairs. Each 2p orbital is oriented along a single axis. One 2p orbital from each atom is oriented in the direction of the other atom, that is, along the bond axis. When these two atomic orbitals overlap, they form a molecular orbital which has the symmetry of a cylinder and which is therefore a σ size 12{σ} {} orbital. Of course, they also form a σ * size 12{σ rSup { size 8{1} } } {} orbital. The two electrons are then paired in the bonding orbital.

The other two 2p orbitals on each nitrogen atom are perpendicular to the bond axis. The constructive overlap between these orbitals from different atoms must therefore result in a molecular orbital somewhat different that what we have discussed before. As shown in Fig. 4, the molecular orbital which results now does not have the symmetry of a cylinder, and in fact, looks something more like a cylinder cut into two pieces. This we call a π size 12{π} {} orbital. There are two such π size 12{π} {} orbitals since there are two sets of p orbitals perpendicular to the bond axis. Figure 4 also shows that an anti-bonding orbital is formed from the destructive overlap of 2p orbitals, and this is called a π * size 12{σ rSup { size 8{1} } } {} orbital. There are also two π * size 12{σ rSup { size 8{1} } } {} orbitals formed from destructive overlap of 2p orbitals. In N 2 size 12{N rSub { size 8{2} } } {} , the three shared electron pairs are thus in a single σ size 12{σ} {} orbital and in two π size 12{π} {} orbitals. Each of these orbitals is a bonding orbital, therefore all six electrons have their energy lowered in comparison to the separated atoms.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry i. OpenStax CNX. Jul 18, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10263/1.3
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