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A Gray code has the property that the binaryrepresentation for each symbol differs from its neighbors by exactly one bit.A Gray code for the translation of binary into 4-PAM is

01 + 3 11 + 1 10 - 1 00 - 3

Mimic the code in naivecode.m to implement this alternative and plot the number of errors as a function ofthe noise variance v . Compare your answer with [link] . Which code is better?

Symbols to signals

Even though the original message is translated into the desired alphabet, it is not yet ready for transmission:it must be turned into an analog waveform. In the binary case, a simple method is to use a rectangular pulseof duration T seconds to represent + 1 , and the same rectangular pulse inverted (i.e., multiplied by - 1 ) to represent the element - 1 . This is called a polar non-return-to-zero line code.The problem with such simple codes is that they use bandwidth inefficiently.Recall that the Fourier transform of the rectangular pulse in time is the sinc ( f ) function in frequency [link] , which dies away slowly as f increases. Thus, simple codes like the non-return-to-zeroare compact in time, but wide in frequency, limiting the number of simultaneous nonoverlapping users ina given spectral band.

More generally, consider the four-level signal of [link] . This can be turned into an analog signal for transmission by choosinga pulse shape p ( t ) (that is not necessarily rectangular and not necessarily of duration T ) and then transmitting

p ( t - k T ) if the k th symbol is 1 - p ( t - k T ) if the k th symbol is - 1 3 p ( t - k T ) if the k th symbol is 3 - 3 p ( t - k T ) if the k th symbol is - 3

Thus, the sequence is translated into an analog waveform by initiating a scaled pulse at the symbol time k T , where the amplitude scaling is proportional to the associated symbolvalue. Ideally, the pulse would be chosen so that

  • the value of the message at time k does not interfere with the value of the message at other sample times(the pulse shape causes no intersymbol interference ),
  • the transmission makes efficient use of bandwidth, and
  • the system is resilient to noise.

Unfortunately, these three requirements cannot all be optimized simultaneously, and so the design of thepulse shape must consider carefully the tradeoffs that are needed. The focus in Chapter [link] is on how to design the pulse shape p ( t ) , and the consequences of that choice in terms of possible interference betweenadjacent symbols and in terms of the signal-to-noise properties of the transmission.

For now, to see concretely how pulse shaping works, let's pick a simple nonrectangular shape and proceedwithout worrying about optimality. Let p ( t ) be the symmetrical blip shape shown in the top part of [link] , and defined in pulseshape.m by the hamming command. The text string in str is changed into a 4-level signal as in Example [link] , and then the complete transmitted waveform is assembled by assigning an appropriatelyscaled pulse shape to each data value. The output appears in the bottom of [link] . Looking at this closely, observe that the first letter T is represented by the four values - 1 - 1 - 1 - 3 , which corresponds exactly to the first four negative blips, three small and one large.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
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