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A court case in 2003, Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation, dealt with the recreation of art images as “thumbnails” or very small images that were displayed as a result of a search engine search. The Arriba search engine was among the first to display images rather than text. The images could not be enlarged and were just barely large enough to be recognizable. When a user clicked on the image, they were taken to the artist’s original web site for large examples of the art. The appeals court decided that the thumbnails, although being examples of copying and distribution, were a fair use of the art. The full analysis is available here (External Link) (Findlaw.com 2003)

How does this case apply to the collage question? When a piece of art is reproduced in a much smaller form, then used as part of something else (even another piece of art), the use can be seen as transformational. The creator of a collage is still at risk of a lawsuit, but there is an argument for Fair Use. (Ovenall 2001)

Finally, there are several web sites which distribute “royalty free” art specifically for collage work. Check these out:

Reusable Art: (External Link)

Public-Domain-Photos: (External Link)

GIMP Photo Archive: (External Link)

Internet Archives (all formats) (External Link)

(Many more such collections exist; use a search engine to find them)

IV. What rights do I have in the photographs I take?

Basic Facts: The photographer holds the copyright of any image they capture using a camera. That means if you loan your camera to a friend, and she takes “the world’s greatest picture,” then your friend owns the copyright in that picture. The photographer owns all the standard copyright owner rights (as applied to artwork): to make and distribute copies, make derivative works, and to display in public. If the photographer displays the images online, they do not “automatically” become public domain. If another person re-uses them without permission, then they have committed copyright infringement. (Anonymous1992)

Q: I took a digital photography class. To create photographs for the class I used school-owned cameras and computers with expensive software for enhancing the photos. With all this equipment contributed, does the school have some copyright in the photos I created?

A: It’s the photographer that owns the copyright. If you took the picture, and you processed it into its final form, then it is your insight that created the photograph. You own the copyright, even if you’re using someone else’s equipment.

Q: I took several pictures of the Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, DC. My professor told me that I have violated the copyright of the designer of the memorial, as it is very unique. Could this be true? Other people were taking pictures, too.

A: Always remember that if a large number of people are all doing the same thing that does not mean what they are doing is not against the law. That being said, we can address the question of taking a photo of a memorial. Section 120 of the copyright act addresses the “Scope of exclusive rights in architectural works : (a) Pictorial Representations Permitted. — The copyright in an architectural work that has been constructed does not include the right to prevent the making, distributing, or public display of pictures, paintings, photographs, or other pictorial representations of the work, if the building in which the work is embodied is located in or ordinarily visible from a public place.” Your photograph of a public memorial is not an infringement.(American Society of Media Photographers 2011)

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for the rest of us. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11385/1.2
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