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By definition, the patriarchal order that characterized Old Testament Judaism limited women's role and rights extensively. A woman was subject to her father until she came under the dominion of her husband, or, in the event of his death, her husband's brother or her eldest son. A man could divorce his wife, but a woman could not give up her husband (Deut. 24:1-4). "The most typical Hebrew word for wife (ishshah) meant 'woman belonging to a man,' while one word for husband (baal) meant 'owner of property.' William E. Hull, "Woman in Her Place: Biblical Perspectives," Review and Expositor, 72 (1975), 9. The Law of Moses stipulated that women were unclean by virtue of their physiological functions (menstruation and childbirth) and provided for ritualistic isolation and purification after both (Lev. 12; 15:19-33). Following the birth of a male child, the purification period lasted thirty-three days; in the event of a female child, it was extended to sixty-six days.

The sacred and secular aspects of Hebrew life were so intertwined, it is not surprising that the subordination that prevailed in domestic arrangements was also present in religious activities. There was no office of priestess; women were not even allowed in the inner court of the Temple. "In the synagogues which replaced the Temple worship in the dispersion of the Jews, the women were not only separated from the men but were required to sit behind screens if they attended at all." Harkness, p. 157. If a woman took a religious vow or obligation, it could be annulled by her husband or her father (Num. 30:3-16). Probably most important, rabbinic Judaism did not allow women to study the Torah, or the Law. "Salvation itself depended on knowledge of obedience to the Law. To exempt woman from this responsibility meant not only that the rabbis had a limited social outlook on woman's relation to man, but more important, that they had not dealt adequately with the ultimate question of her relation to God." Hull, p. 11. Although most of her religious service was performed as a spectator, a woman was allowed to partake of sacrificial meals and to participate in festivals, such as choral processionals and cultic dances. And despite the restrictions, a rare woman did rise to a position of military or spiritual leadership, as in the cases of Deborah, Miriam, and Esther.

Without doubt, the role of mother justified a woman's existence and gave her what status she had under Judaic law. Strict laws concerning chastity protected females from some kinds of sexual exploitation and were indicative of the high social value placed on family life. The honoring of mother, as well as father, was one of the Ten Commandments (Exod. 20:12). Well-known Old Testament love stories like that of Jacob and Rachel indicated that in single instances--like those of individual queens or prophetesses--an extraordinary regard for womanhood triumphed. Yet even the paean to "the virtuous woman" found in Proverbs 31:10-31 is a tribute accorded her for working tirelessly at domestic and commercial tasks for the comfort and honor of her husband. His is the position of honor among the elders at the city gates. Hers is a life of service.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Patricia martin's phd thesis. OpenStax CNX. Dec 12, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11462/1.1
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