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v ξ - i v η = d w d ς = d w d z d z d ς = v x - i v y d z d ς

This shows that the magnitude of the velocity is changed, in the transformation from the z -plane to the ζ -plane, by the reciprocal of the factor by which linear dimensions of small figures are changed. Thus the kinetic energy of the fluid contained within a closed curve in the z -plane is equal to the kinetic energy of the corresponding flow in the region enclosed by the corresponding in the ζ -plane.

Flow around elliptic cylinder (Batchelor, 1967). The transformation of the region outside of an ellipse in the z -plane into the region outside a circle in the ζ -plane is given by

z = ς + λ 2 ς ς = 1 2 z + 1 2 z 2 - 4 λ 2 1 / 2

where λ is a real constant so that

x = ξ 1 + λ 2 ς 2 , y = η 1 - λ 2 ς 2

This converts a circle of radius c with center at the origin in the - plane into the ellipse

x 2 a 2 + y 2 b 2 = 1

in the z -plane, where

λ = 1 2 a 2 - b 2 1 / 2

If the ellipse is mapped into a circle in the ζ -plane, it is convenient to use polar coordinates ( r , θ ) , especially since the boundary corresponds to a constant radius. The radius that maps to the elliptical boundary is ( ellipse.m in the complex directory)

r o = 1 2 log a + b a - b

The transformation from the polar coordinates to the z - plane is defined by

z = 2 λ cosh ω where ω = r + i θ
Transformation of cylindrical polar coordinates into orthogonal, elliptical coordinates

The polar coordinates ( r , θ ) , transform to an orthogonal set of curves which are confocal ellipses and conjugate hyperbolae.

This transformation can be substituted into the complex potential expression for the flow of a fluid past a circular cylinder.

w = - 1 2 a + b U - i V e ω - r o + U + i V e r o - ω

It is convenient to write - for the angle which the direction of motion of the flow at infinity makes with the x - axis so that

U + i V = U 2 + V 2 1 / 2 e - i α

The complex potential now becomes

w = - U 2 + V 2 1 / 2 a + b cosh ω - r o + i α

The corresponding velocity potential and stream function are

ϕ = - U 2 + V 2 1 / 2 a + b cosh r - r o cos θ + α ψ = - U 2 + V 2 1 / 2 a + b sinh r - r o sin θ + α

The velocity potentials and streamlines are illustrated below for flow past an elliptical cylinder ( fellipse.m in the complex directory). Note the stagnation streamlines on either side of the body. These two stagnation points are regions of maximum pressure and result in a torque on the body. Which way will it rotate?

Flow past an ellipse of an inviscid fluid that is in steady translation at infinity.

Pressure distribution. When an object is in a flow field, one may wish to determine the force exerted by the fluid on the object, or the 'drag' on the object. Since the flow field discussed here has assumed an inviscid fluid, it is not possible to determine the viscous drag or skin friction directly from the flow field. It is possible to determine the 'form drag' from the normal stress or pressure distribution around the object. However, one must be critical to determine if the calculated flow field is physically realistic or if some important phenomena such as boundary layer separation may occur but is not allowed in the complex potential solution.

The Bernoulli theorems give the relation between the magnitude of velocity and pressure. We have assumed irrotational, incompressible flow. If in addition we assume the body force can be neglected, then the quantity, H , must be constant along a streamline.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Transport phenomena. OpenStax CNX. May 24, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11205/1.1
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