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The concept that lone pair electrons produce a greater repulsive effect than do bonded pairs can be used tounderstand other interesting molecular geometries. Sulfur tetrafluoride, S F 4 , is a particularly interesting example, shown in .

Molecular structure of sf4

Note that two of the fluorines form close to a straight line with the central sulfur atom, but the other two areapproximately perpendicular to the first two and at an angle of 101.5° to each other. Viewed sideways, this structurelooks something like a seesaw.

To account for this structure, we first prepare a Lewis structure. We find that each fluorine atom issingly bonded to the sulfur atom, and that there is a lone pair of electrons on the sulfur. Thus, with five electron pairs around thecentral atom, we expect the electrons to arrange themselves in a trigonal bipyramid, similar to the arrangement in P Cl 5 in . In this case, however, the fluorine atoms and the lone pair could be arranged in twodifferent ways with two different resultant molecular structures. The lone pair can either go on the axis of the trigonalbipyramid ( i.e. “above” the sulfur) or on the equator of the bipyramid ( i.e. “beside” the sulfur).

The actual molecular structure in shows clearly that the lone pair goes on the equatorial position. This can be understood if weassume that the lone pair produces a greater repulsive effect than do the bonded pairs. With this assumption, we can deduce that thelone pair should be placed in the trigonal bipyramidal arrangement as far as possible from the bonded pairs. The equatorial positiondoes a better job of this, since only two bonding pairs of electrons are at approximately 90° angles from thelone pair in this position. By contrast, a lone pair in the axial position is approximately 90° away from three bondingpairs. Therefore, our Electron Domain model assumptions are consistent with the observed geometry of S F 4 . Note that these assumptions also correctly predict the observeddistortions away from the 180° and 120° angles which would be predicted by a trigonalbipyramidal arrangement of the five electron pairs.

Review and discussion questions

Using a styrofoam or rubber ball, prove to yourself that a tetrahedral arrangement provides the maximumseparation of four points on the surface of the ball. Repeat this argument to find the expected arrangements for two, three, five,and six points on the surface of the ball.

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Explain why arranging points on the surface of a sphere can be considered equivalent to arranging electron pairsabout a central atom.

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The valence shell electron pairs about the central atom in each of the molecules H 2 O , N H 3 , and C H 4 are arranged approximately in a tetrahedron. However, only C H 4 is considered a tetrahedral molecule. Explain why these statements arenot inconsistent.

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Explain how a comparison of the geometries of H 2 O and C H 4 leads to a conclusion that lone pair electrons produce a greaterrepulsive effect than do bonded pairs of electrons. Give a physical reason why this might be expected.

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Explain why the octet of electrons about each carbon atom in ethene, C 2 H 4 , are not arranged even approximately in a tetrahedron.

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Assess the accuracy of the following reasoning and conclusions:

A trigonal bipyramid forms when there are five electron domains. If one ED is a lone pair, then the lone pairtakes an equatorial position and the molecule has a seesaw geometry. If two EDs are lone pairs, we have to decide among thefollowing options: both axial, both equatorial, or one axial and one equatorial. By placing both lone pairs in the axial positions,the lone pairs are as far apart as possible, so the trigonal planar structure is favored.

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Assess the accuracy of the following reasoning and conclusions:

The Cl-X-Cl bond angles in the two molecules are identical, because the bond angle is determined by the repulsion ofthe two Cl atoms, which is identical in the two molecules.

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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
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it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
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The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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