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Tetrahedral structure of methane

The dotted lines illustrate that the hydrogens form a tetrahedron about the carbon atom.
The same tetrahedron is formed by placing four points on a sphere as far apart from one another as possible.

We conclude that molecular geometry is determined by minimizing the mutual repulsion of the valence shellelectron pairs. As such, this model of molecular geometry is often referred to as the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory . For reasons that will become clear, extension of this model impliesthat a better name is the Electron Domain (ED) Theory .

This model also accounts, at least approximately, for the bond angles of H 2 O and N H 3 . These molecules are clearly not tetrahedral, like C H 4 , since neither contains the requisite five atoms to form thetetrahedron. However, each molecule does contain a central atom surrounded by four pairs of valence shell electrons. We expect fromour Electron Domain model that those four pairs should be arrayed in a tetrahedron, without regard to whether they are bonding orlone-pair electrons. Then attaching the hydrogens (two for oxygen, three for nitrogen) produces a prediction of bond angles of109.5°, very close indeed to the observed angles of 104.5° in H 2 O and 107° in N H 3 .

Note, however, that we do not describe the geometries of H 2 O and N H 3 as "tetrahedral," since the atoms of the molecules do not form tetrahedrons, even if the valence shell electron pairs do. (It isworth noting that these angles are not exactly equal to 109.5°, as in methane. These deviations will be discussed later .)

We have developed the Electron Domain model to this point only for geometries of molecules with four pairs ofvalence shell electrons. However, there are a great variety of molecules in which atoms from Period 3 and beyond can have morethan an octet of valence electrons. We consider two such molecules illustrated in .

More molecular structures

First, P Cl 5 is a stable gaseous compound in which the five chlorine atoms are each bonded to the phosphorous atom. Experiments reveal that thegeometry of P Cl 5 is that of a trigonal bipyramid : three of the chlorine atoms form an equilateral triangle with the P atom in the center, and theother two chlorine atoms are on top of and below the P atom. Thus there must be 10 valence shell electrons around the phosphorousatom. Hence, phosphorous exhibits what is called an expanded valence in P Cl 5 . Applying our Electron Domain model, we expect the five valenceshell electron pairs to spread out optimally to minimize their repulsions. The required geometry can again be found by trying toplace five points on the surface of a sphere with maximum distances amongst these points. A little experimentation reveals that thiscan be achieved by placing the five points to form a trigonal bipyramid. Hence, Electron Domain theory accounts for the geometryof P Cl 5 .

Second, S F 6 is a fairly unreactive gaseous compound in which all six fluorineatoms are bonded to the central sulfur atom. Again, it is clear that the octet rule is violated by the sulfur atom, which musttherefore have an expanded valence. The observed geometry of S F 6 , as shown in , is highly symmetric: all bond lengths are identical and all bond angles are90°. The F atoms form an octahedron about the central S atom: four of the F atoms form a square with the S atom at the center, and the othertwo F atoms are above and below the S atom. To apply our Electron Domain model to understand this geometry, we must place six points,representing the six electron pairs about the central S atom, on the surface ofa sphere with maximum distances between the points. The requisite geometry is found, in fact, to be that of anoctahedron, in agreement with the observed geometry.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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