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    Editors Information

  • Theodore B. Creighton , is a Professor at Virginia Tech and the Publications Director for NCPEA Publications , the Founding Editor of Education Leadership Review, and the Senior Editor of the NCPEA Connexions Project.
  • Brad E. Bizzell , is a recent graduate of the Virginia Tech Doctoral Program in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, and is a School Improvement Coordinator for the Virginia Tech Training and Technical Assistance Center. In addition, Dr. Bizzell serves as an Assistant Editor of the NCPEA Connexions Project in charge of technical formatting and design.
  • Janet Tareilo , is a Professor at Stephen F. Austin State University and serves as the Assistant Director of NCPEA Publications. Dr. Tareilo also serves as an Assistant Editor of the NCPEA Connexions Project and as a editor and reviewer for several national and international journals in educational leadership.
  • Thomas Kersten is a Professor at Roosevelt University in Chicago. Dr. Kersten is widely published and an experienced editor and is the author of Taking the Mystery Out of Illinois School Finance , a Connexions Print on Demand publication. He is also serving as Editor in Residence for this book by Slate and LeBouef.

Conducting a nonparametric independent samples t -test

In this set of steps, readers will calculate either a parametric or a nonparametric statistical analysis, depending on whether the data for the dependent variable reflect a normal distribution. A parametric statistical procedure requires that its data be reflective of a normal curve whereas no such assumption is made in the use of a nonparametric procedure. Of the two types of statistical analyses, the parametric procedure is the more powerful one in ascertaining whether or not a statistically significant difference, in this case, exists. As such, parametric procedures are preferred over nonparametric procedures. When data are not normally distributed, however, parametric analyses may provide misleading and inaccurate results. According, nonparametric analyses should be used in cases where data are not reflective of a normal curve. In this set of steps, readers are provided with information on how to make the determination of normally or nonnormally distributed data. For detailed information regarding the assumptions underlying parametric and nonparametric procedures, readers are referred to the Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook at http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/ or to the Electronic Statistics Textbook (2011) at http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/

For this nonparametric independent samples t -test to be appropriately used, at least half of the standardized skewness coefficients and the standardized kurtosis coefficients must be outside the normal range (+/-3, Onwuegbuzie&Daniel, 2002). Research questions for which nonparametric independent samples t -tests are appropriate involve asking for differences in a dependent variable by group membership (i.e., only two groups are present for t -tests). The research question, “What is the difference between boys and girls in their science performance among middle school students?” could be answered through use of a nonparametric independent samples t -test.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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