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After the crisis has passed

The federal government tended to lose interest in science after a given military crisis had passed. The NRC, for example, wascreated in 1916 on the initiative of a group of activists within the National Academy of Sciences. California Institute of Technology astronomer George ElleryHale conceived of it as a privately managed organization, composed of leading scientists from government, industry, and academia, that would place thecountry's scientific resources at the disposal of the federal government. Ibid., 309-15 Hale's proposal was accepted by President Wilson, and by the time the United Statesentered the war in April 1917, the NRC had assembled a small staff in Washington.

Because the government had no ready mechanism to support private institutions, initial funding for staff operations came fromthe Carnegie Corporation and Rockefeller Foundation. (Even by the war's end, those sources still provided more support for administrative funding than did government.) Research was funded by giving non-government NRC scientistsmilitary commissions—an expedient making it difficult for the NRC to maintain independence from the military bureaucracy. In May 1918, Hale and a group of NASleaders (including John Merriam) convinced Wilson to issue an Executive Order establishing the NRC permanently within the NAS. But a general reaction againstthe war and particularly against entanglement in foreign affairs swept the country after 1919, leading a congressional committee to reject an NRC proposalto establish a central institute of physics. Ibid., 326-30 Most of the prominent NRC scientists returned to their universities soon after the armistice, and the military scientific bureausreverted to the relative lethargy of the first years of the century. R&D budgets for military bureaus were relatively insignificant until World War II.

The OSRD’s World War II arrangement for placing civilian scientific resources at the disposal of military departments owed agreat deal to the NRC's World War I experience and to Vannevar Bush’s experience as NACA chairman. OSRD director Bush had learned that only an organizationwithin government could effectively mobilize scientific resources for national defense. The OSRD owed a great deal of its effectiveness to Bush's insistencethat priorities be established by civilian scientists within the organization rather than by the military bureaus. Another significant innovation was Bush’sdecision to permit scientists and engineers to work in familiar surroundings as far as was possible, rather than granting them temporary military commissionsand employing them in military research facilities.

Research and development leading to the first nuclear weapons were carried out at the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico. Photo by theauthor.

The most famous example was the Manhattan Project, overseen but not managed directly by OSRD; another was the RadiationLaboratory at MIT, where scientists from throughout the country worked on highly classified projects to develop successive generations of radar.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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