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In Building Trust for Better Schools, Kochanek’s (2005) focus is on leadership practices in elementary schools that build trust. This guide to principals suggests a developmental approach of communicating a vision, reshaping the faculty, fostering low-risk exchanges through small group interactions, using interactions to ease vulnerabilities, and then creating opportunities for high-risk interactions. Through these repeated exchanges, staff members build confidence in themselves and others resulting in greater trust in their relationships. Kochanek also explores which strategies are most effective in building trust. The steps offered for principals to build trust in schools are 1) put others at ease, 2) remove barriers to trust, and 3) provide opportunities for people to interact.

Kochanek asserts that the material offered, “presents a series of mechanisms that are useful in developing trust in a school community” (p.86). What are not found in the literature are the specific group process strategies that are readily accessible to school principals and other school leaders. “Even in the business literature, there are few serious comparative studies about how to build trust…” (Louis, 2008, p. 50). The question of what human interaction methodologies can be employed when the adults in a school experience low levels of trust characterized by a lack of collaboration or conflict is not answered.

Consensus principles and methods

Consensus is defined by the dictionary as “general agreement or opinion” (Abate, 1998, p. 121). In consensus literature, this general definition is expanded to include the practice of consensus building and is described as “a cooperative process in which all group members develop and agree to support a decision that is in the best interest of the whole” (Dressler, 2006, p. 4). Beliefs that guide consensus and other group processes are as varied as the practitioners who offer field or handbooks on the various approaches to consensus building (Dressler, 2006; Eichler, 2007; Susskind, McKearnan, Thomas-Learner, 1991). Dressler notes that consensus is characterized by a cooperative search for solutions where disagreement is accepted as a positive force, every voice matters, and decisions are reached in the interest of the group. The core values of the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) contain inclusiveness, global scope, participation, celebration, innovative form, and social responsibility (Schuman, 2005).

These guiding principles of the consensus process are implemented using a wide-range of practices, methods, and techniques. Schuman (2005) suggests providing activities that share all relevant information, allow for individuals to explain their reasoning and intent, focus on interests rather than positions, combine advocacy and inquiry, allow for discussing undiscussable issues, ensure that every person is heard, and promote authentic listening. To guard against participants remaining silent and not being heard, Dressler suggests using a “round robin” approach that circles the room so everyone speaks (2006). While there is surprisingly no discussion by Dressler (2006) of the physical set up for a group consensus activity except by reference to the “round robin” approach, it is perhaps no accident that the front cover photograph of his book Consensus through Conversation features a bird’s eye view of twelve participants sitting in a circle. Management consultant and author, Peter Block, provides clear direction for the physical set up group conversations by stating that, “Community is built when we sit in circles” (p. 151).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 1; february 2009. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10630/1.9
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