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In this section the details of the simulated microphone array are discussed

Labview vis used in simulation

Top level diagram and overall organization

The figure below is a top level diagram of a six microphone array simulation VI. This VI is named"Multiple Frequency Simulation"Starting at the left with the signal generation, the code flows to the right. This top VI is made out of smaller VIs that each perform a specific function. Detailed descriptions of each of these can be found in the following paragraphs.

Top level diagram (multiple frequency simulation)

Top Level Diagram

Simulated signal generation vi

Simulate signal icon

Simulate Signal Icon

Signal generation vi

The above icon corresponds to the Signal Generation VI. At the far left are four signal generation VIs. Each of these VIs produces six different signals that simulate the delayed signals that each of the microphones would hear in real life. These six signals are then bunched together in a cluster (pink wire) to keep the amount of wires down. The three inputs to this VI are the frequency of the sinusoid desired, the direction of the signal, and the distnace between microphones (9.9 cm in this example). The user sets these paramaters on the front panel and is free to change them at any time.

Our VI uses the formula discussed in previous modules that relates the time delay of signals to the distance between microphones. Using the desired angle that the signal is coming from, the speed of sound (C), the distance between microphones, and a conversion between degrees and radians, the VI first computes the time delay between microphones. Becuase we are interested in the delay between the first microphone and all others, the amount of delay is multiplied by zero for the first mic, one for the second mic, two for the third, and so on. These delays are then used as phase inputs to the six identical Simulate Signal VIs. Adding phase to a periodic signal like the sinusoids being used here has the same effect as delaying the signal in time. Finally the six signals are merged together into a cluster so that they will be easier to deal with as a group in other VIs.

Simulate signal block diagram

Simulate Signal Block Diagram

In this simulation we simulate four different frequencies and directions. Once we have the data of these four separate signals, we sum the signals on each of the channels to get the final output on each of the microphones. Doing so leaves us solely with what we would hear on the six microphones if this were set up in real life. If more signals are required for future testing or other applications, onc can simply copy and paste the signal generation VI and then sum it with the other signals.

Once this signal is comple, we move to the right in our VI. From here we branch into two separate areas. Following the pink line up takes us to where we calculate the angle that a given frequency is coming from,and to the right is where we perform the calculations to listen to signals from a given direction.

Questions & Answers

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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Array signal processing. OpenStax CNX. Jul 20, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10255/1.4
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