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Although principals voiced support for shared decision-making, they did not accurately articulate specific processes. When a specific strategy was mentioned, like consensus building, the description was not accurate for the term. The lack of accuracy and facility with discussion of shared decision-making led the researchers to conclude that principals lack knowledge, skills, and implementation processes of successful and effective decision-making models. If specific decision-making processes are practiced with stakeholders, leadership skills and capacity can develop among leaders and stakeholders, to increase decision-making outcomes and effectiveness of outcome implementation.


In principals’ daily practice decision-making processes should be explicit. If the principal does not have consistent decision-making practices communicated clearly, then stakeholders cannot fully participate, decisions may not be accepted, and hence not successfully implemented (Valesky, Horgan, Caughey,&Smith, 2003). In contrast to the principals in this study, Taylor (2010) found that principals guided by a personal theory of change and decision-making, led second order change successfully, and had gains in student achievement—trust resulted and fidelity of implementation was evident.

School administrators need professional development in decision-making, collaboration, consensus building, accessibility, and in communication. “….a shared decision-making process is not easy. A leader who employs this process needs to be very skilled,” (Middle School Principal 66, 1/9/2005). Without clear expectations from the superintendent related to the importance of the skills and knowledge in leading shared decision-making, principals will continue to have vague ideas and will rely on intuition. Given the high accountability environment of principals’ and superintendents’ work, it would be in the best interest of school leaders’ careers, to place a high value on consistent expectations for shared decision-making because by involving others, you increase the likelihood that they will commit to the changes.

Future school administrators need to acquire mastery of the skills of decision-making, including forms of shared decision-making. Mastery implies modeling and practicing in the field with feedback from a scholar practitioner.

The practice of decision-making cannot be improved without improving communication skills. As Lambert (2004) suggested active listening, clarifying, responding, and reinforcing are basic communication skills for leading others. Within graduate programs, the inclusion of collaborative work and affirmatory communication skills’ development would support mastery of shared decision-making.

The need for this leader development is especially important now. Since 2001, many school districts have moved away from school-based management to more centralized decision-making to ensure achievement of the expectations of NCLB. In doing so, the need for shared decision-making at the school level may be perceived as diminished in importance. The authors believe such thinking is faulty. Shared decision-making builds trust and commitment to decisions for successful change in student learning.

Concepts of equity, access to excellence, social justice, and accountability are inextricably interwoven in the decision-making processes of principals for better or worse. Principals need to own a theory of leadership decision-making practice which they communicate and implement with mastery and consistency to improve all students’ learning.


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Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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