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Listening to others gives a variety of perspectives on how to resolve problems. “…there are many ways to solve any given issue. ….So, I think that it is important to hear their voices,” (High School Principal 83, 6/18/2006). In referring to historically unheard parents, Southwest Elementary Principal 52 (6/8/2006) equated the lack of voice with lack of power. “ ..those parents will not speak up, you know, maybe that don’t feel they have a voice or—or they….—feel powerless”

Examples of shared decision-making that included parents, faculty and students were related to decisions which impacted the entire school. Implementation of block scheduling and seeking input on the best way to be successful on state accountability assessments were cited as successful shared decision-making experiences.

...parents, staff members—certified and classified and students are part of that give and take… if you’re going to do something that’s going to affect everybody’s lives, they need to have some ownership and opportunity to be a part of constructing that, and so kids are heavily involved… (Midwest High School Principal 75, 10/17/2005)

Principals' belief that they were in the middle between school level stakeholders and the district office and superintendent influenced their decision-making. They also desired to be included in the superintendent and district level decision-making process.

…we as building principals, are on both sides …hit from both directions... One is staff members or those that we supervise or are responsible for are asking for more ownership in decisions or more participation in them and we in turn are asking those above us to allow us to be more a part of those decisions that really matter. I don’t think any group of people would understand the full ramifications of that issue better than building principals, because they are truly in the middle (Midwest School Principal 75, 10/17/2005).

Midwest High School Principal 80 (6/18/2006) was even more explicit as he detailed his perception and how he advised those preparing for administration to be cautious of being perceived by the district office of not being supportive or of teachers’ perception of not inviting input. Although in the middle, principals equated the trust of the superintendent with opportunities to provide input and the reciprocal trust represented support of principals’ decisions. “District support equals trust,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 33, 1/3/2006). “Relationships with superintendents build trust in your decisions,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 41, 10/11/2005).


Knowledge and skills in decision-making and communication are essential to successfully lead change in schools to improve learning for all students. Creation and implementation of new mental models of schooling can serve all students at a high level and become a reality if principals have the knowledge and skills in decision-making, communication, and empowerment to create a school culture for change. Such change has the potential to lead to equity and access to excellence for all students regardless of family background or economic status, leading to social and professional opportunities (Jean-Marie, Normore,&Brooks, 2009).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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