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By the turn of the century, distinctions were also being drawn between basic (or fundamental) research and applied research, with most arguing that direct government involvement should be goal-directed, and therefore limited to applied research, with universities being the appropriate sites for basic research.

Until immediately after World War II, the consensus held that the federal government had no constitutional authority for education, particularly in privately endowed universities where a good deal of the best research was being conducted. For their part, research universities, their endowments often supplemented with funds for special projects from private foundations, had no need for government support.

World war i and the 1920s

In 1916, Woodrow Wilson issued an executive order establishing the National Research Council and directing it to explore ways to mobilize the nation’s scientific resources in the event that it was drawn into the European war. The NRC was conceived as an organization that could call on a broader range of American scientists than was represented by the National Academy of Sciences’ strictly honorific membership. During World War I, it recruited qualified scientists for military research, with the recruits given service commissions and sent to work in military research facilities. In May 1918, near the war’s end, Wilson issued a second executive order permanently establishing the NRC.

World War I increased the number and prominence of industrial research laboratories in the United States. From a pre-war handful, their number grew rapidly during the war itself and the subsequent decade of prosperity. As Secretary of Commerce during the Harding and Coolidge administrations, Herbert Hoover, himself an engineer, recognized the contributions that government, university, and industrial science individually and collectively could make to national prosperity. He took steps to improve the Commerce Department's scientific bureaus, particularly the National Bureau of Standards, urging them to make greater use of federal contracting authority to obtain assistance from companies and universities. Hoover also exhorted business to invest more in its research laboratories and provide assistance to university research, proposing that industry establish a $2 million National Research Fund to endow projects in universities. Dupree, op. cit ., 340-43. Announced with great fanfare in 1926, initial enthusiasm for the fund waned after Hoover became president in 1929, and the fund itself expired quietly during the first years of the Great Depression.

The great depression and the early new deal

During the Great Depression, budgets and personnel in government research bureaus and industrial research laboratories were reduced substantially. Private universities, with their endowment incomes shrinking, also reduced support for basic research. A strong current of public opinion held the business-oriented scientific establishment responsible for many depression-era dislocations. Secretary of Agriculture Wallace addressed the situation during the first months of the New Deal by advising Roosevelt to issue his July 1933 executive order establishing the Science Advisory Board.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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