# 0.4 Discrete structures function

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## Definitions on function

A function is something that associates each element of a set with an element of another set (which may or may not be the same as the first set). The concept of function appears quite often even in non-technical contexts. For example, a social security number uniquely identifies the person, the income tax rate varies depending on the income, and the final letter grade for a course is often determined by test and exam scores, homeworks and projects, and so on.

In all these cases to each member of a set (social security number, income, tuple of test and exam scores, homeworks and projects) some member of another set (person, tax rate, letter grade, respectively) is assigned.

As you might have noticed, a function is quite like a relation. In fact, formally, we define a function as a special type of binary relation.

Definition (function): A function, denote it by f, from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies

1. for each element a in A, there is an element b in B such that<a, b>is in the relation, and

2. if<a, b>and<a, c>are in the relation, then b = c .

The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain.

Thus, f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued.

The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair  <a, b> is denoted as  f(a) = b , and b is called the image of a under f .

The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f, and is denoted by  f(S) , that is,

f(S) = { f(a) | a ∈ S }, where S is a subset of the domain A of  f .

The image of the domain under f is called the range of f.

Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2. Then the domain and co-domain of this f are N, the image of, say 3, under this function is 9, and its range is the set of squares, i.e. { 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, ....} .

Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R.

Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows:

For all x, ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) , and

for all x, ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) ,

where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x).

Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 , and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2

Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) , if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) , x = y .

Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers (negative as well as non-negative) to N, because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 .

Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) , if and only if for every element y of B , there is an element x in A such that  f(x) = y ,  that is,  f is onto if and only if  f( A ) = B .

Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is an onto function. However, f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto, because, for example, nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function.

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
is it 3×y ?
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
im not good at math so would this help me
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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