<< Chapter < Page
  Physics 101   Page 1 / 1
Chapter >> Page >

This appendix is broken into several tables.

  • [link] , Important Constants
  • [link] , Submicroscopic Masses
  • [link] , Solar System Data
  • [link] , Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols
  • [link] , The Greek Alphabet
  • [link] , SI units
  • [link] , Selected British Units
  • [link] , Other Units
  • [link] , Useful Formulae
Important constants Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
c size 12{c} {} Speed of light in vacuum 2 . 99792458 × 10 8 m / s size 12{2 "." "99792458" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {} 3 . 00 × 10 8 m / s size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {}
G size 12{G} {} Gravitational constant 6 . 67408 ( 31 ) × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67384" \( "80" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 6 . 67 × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
N A size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } } {} Avogadro’s number 6 . 02214129 ( 27 ) × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02214129" \( "27" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {} 6 . 02 × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {}
k size 12{k} {} Boltzmann’s constant 1 . 3806488 ( 13 ) × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "3806488" \( "13" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {} 1 . 38 × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "38" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {}
R size 12{R} {} Gas constant 8 . 3144621 ( 75 ) J / mol K size 12{8 "." "3144621" \( "75" \) ` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K} } {} 8 . 31 J / mol K = 1 . 99 cal / mol K = 0 . 0821 atm L / mol K size 12{8 "." "31"` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K=1 "." "99"` {"cal"} slash {"mol" cdot K=0 "." "0821"` {"atm" cdot L} slash {"mol" cdot K} } } } {}
σ size 12{σ} {} Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5 . 670373 ( 21 ) × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "670373" \( "21" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {} 5 . 67 × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {}
k size 12{k} {} Coulomb force constant 8 . 987551788 . . . × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{8 "." "987551788" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8.99 × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{9 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
q e size 12{q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Charge on electron 1 . 602176565 ( 35 ) × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "602176565" \( "35" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {} 1 . 60 × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {}
ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permittivity of free space 8 . 854187817 . . . × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "854187817" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8 . 85 × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "85" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permeability of free space × 10 7 T m / A size 12{4π times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 7} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {} 1 . 26 × 10 6 T m / A size 12{1 "." "26" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {}
h size 12{h} {} Planck’s constant 6 . 62606957 ( 29 ) × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "62606957" \( "29" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {} 6 . 63 × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "63" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {}
Submicroscopic masses Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Electron mass 9 . 10938291 ( 40 ) × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "10938291" \( "40" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {} 9 . 11 × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "11" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {}
m p size 12{m rSub { size 8{p} } } {} Proton mass 1 . 672621777 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "672621777" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6726 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6726" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
m n size 12{m rSub { size 8{n} } } {} Neutron mass 1 . 674927351 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "674927351" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6749 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6749" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
u size 12{u} {} Atomic mass unit 1 . 660538921 ( 73 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "660538921" \( "73" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
Solar system data
Sun mass 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 96 × 10 8 m size 12{6 "." "96" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `m} {}
Earth-sun distance (average) 1 . 496 × 10 11 m size 12{1 "." "496" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
Earth mass 5 . 9736 × 10 24 kg size 12{5 "." "9736" times "10" rSup { size 8{"24"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 376 × 10 6 m size 12{6 "." "376" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {} {}
orbital period 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s "} {}
Moon mass 7 . 35 × 10 22 kg size 12{7 "." "35" times "10" rSup { size 8{"22"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 1 . 74 × 10 6 m size 12{1 "." "74" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {}
orbital period (average) 2 . 36 × 10 6 s size 12{2 "." "36" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " s"} {}
Earth-moon distance (average) 3 . 84 × 10 8 m size 12{3 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m"} {}
Metric prefixes for powers of ten and their symbols
Prefix Symbol Value Prefix Symbol Value
tera T 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {} deci d 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } } {}
giga G 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {} centi c 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } } {}
mega M 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} milli m 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {}
kilo k 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} micro μ size 12{μ} {} 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } } {}
hecto h 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} nano n 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } } {}
deka da 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{1} } } {} pico p 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } } {}
10 0 ( = 1 ) size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{0} } \( `=1` \) } {} femto f 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } } {}
The greek alphabet
Alpha Α size 12{Α} {} α size 12{α} {} Eta Η size 12{Η} {} η size 12{η} {} Nu Ν size 12{Ν} {} ν size 12{ν} {} Tau Τ size 12{Τ} {} τ size 12{τ} {}
Beta Β size 12{Β} {} β size 12{β} {} Theta Θ size 12{Θ} {} θ size 12{θ} {} Xi Ξ size 12{Ξ} {} ξ size 12{ξ} {} Upsilon Υ size 12{Υ} {} υ size 12{υ} {}
Gamma Γ size 12{Γ} {} γ size 12{γ} {} Iota Ι size 12{Ι} {} ι size 12{ι} {} Omicron Ο size 12{Ο} {} ο size 12{ο} {} Phi Φ size 12{Φ} {} ϕ size 12{ϕ} {}
Delta Δ size 12{Δ} {} δ size 12{δ} {} Kappa Κ size 12{Κ} {} κ size 12{κ} {} Pi Π size 12{Π} {} π size 12{π} {} Chi Χ size 12{Χ} {} χ size 12{χ} {}
Epsilon Ε size 12{Ε} {} ε size 12{ε} {} Lambda Λ size 12{Λ} {} λ size 12{λ} {} Rho Ρ size 12{Ρ} {} ρ size 12{ρ} {} Psi Ψ size 12{Ψ} {} ψ size 12{ψ} {}
Zeta Ζ size 12{Ζ} {} ζ size 12{ζ} {} Mu Μ size 12{Μ} {} μ size 12{μ} {} Sigma Σ size 12{Σ} {} σ size 12{σ} {} Omega Ω size 12{ %OMEGA } {} ω size 12{ω} {}
Si units
Entity Abbreviation Name
Fundamental units Length m meter
Mass kg kilogram
Time s second
Current A ampere
Supplementary unit Angle rad radian
Derived units Force N = kg m / s 2 size 12{N="kg" cdot {m} slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} newton
Energy J = kg m 2 / s 2 size 12{J="kg" cdot {m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} joule
Power W = J / s size 12{W= {J} slash {s} } {} watt
Pressure Pa = N / m 2 size 12{"Pa"= {N} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} pascal
Frequency Hz = 1 / s size 12{"Hz"= {1} slash {s} } {} hertz
Electronic potential V = J / C size 12{V= {J} slash {C} } {} volt
Capacitance F = C / V size 12{F= {C} slash {V} } {} farad
Charge C = s A size 12{C=s cdot A} {} coulomb
Resistance Ω = V / A size 12{ %OMEGA = {V} slash {A} } {} ohm
Magnetic field T = N / A m size 12{T= {N} slash { left (A cdot m right )} } {} tesla
Nuclear decay rate Bq = 1 / s size 12{"Bq"= {1} slash {s} } {} becquerel
Selected british units
Length 1 inch ( in . ) = 2 . 54 cm ( exactly ) size 12{1" inch " \( "in" "." \) =2 "." "54"" cm " \( "exactly" \) } {}
1 foot ( ft ) = 0 . 3048 m size 12{1" foot " \( "ft" \) =0 "." "3048"" m"} {}
1 mile ( mi ) = 1 . 609 km size 12{1" mile " \( "mi" \) =1 "." "609"" km"} {}
Force 1 pound ( lb ) = 4 . 448 N size 12{1" pound " \( "lb" \) =4 "." "448"" N"} {}
Energy 1 British thermal unit ( Btu ) = 1 . 055 × 10 3 J size 12{1" British thermal unit " \( "Btu" \) =1 "." "055" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} {}
Power 1 horsepower ( hp ) = 746 W size 12{1" horsepower " \( "hp" \) ="746"" W"} {}
Pressure 1 lb / in 2 = 6 . 895 × 10 3 Pa size 12{1 {"lb"} slash {"in" rSup { size 8{2} } } =6 "." "895" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " Pa"} {}
Other units
Length 1 light year ( ly ) = 9 . 46 × 10 15 m size 12{1`" light"`" year"` \( "ly" \) ` =9 "." "46" times "10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } " m"} {}
1 astronomical unit ( au ) = 1 . 50 × 10 11 m size 12{1`" astronomical"`" unit"` \( "au" \) ` =1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
1 nautical mile = 1 . 852 km size 12{1`" nautical"`" mile"` =1 "." "852"`" km"} {}
1 angstrom ( Å ) = 10 10 m size 12{1`" angstrom"` \( Å \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "10"} } " m"} {}
Area 1 acre ( ac ) = 4 . 05 × 10 3 m 2 size 12{1`" acre"` \( "ac" \) ` =4 "." "05" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 square foot ( ft 2 ) = 9 . 29 × 10 2 m 2 size 12{1`"square"`"foot"` \( "ft" rSup { size 8{2} } \) ` =9 "." "29" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 barn ( b ) = 10 28 m 2 size 12{1`" barn"` \( b \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "28"} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume 1 liter ( L ) = 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" liter"` \( L \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
1 U.S. gallon ( gal ) = 3 . 785 × 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" U" "." S "." `" gallon"` \( "gal" \) ` =3 "." "785" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
Mass 1 solar mass = 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1`" solar"`" mass"` =1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } " kg"} {}
1 metric ton = 10 3 kg size 12{1`" metric"`" ton"` ="10" rSup { size 8{3} } " kg"} {}
1 atomic mass unit ( u ) = 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1`" atomic"`" mass"`" unit"`` \( u \) ` =1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } " kg"} {}
Time 1 year ( y ) = 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{1`" year"` \( y \) ` =3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s"} {}
1 day ( d ) = 86 , 400 s size 12{1`" day"` \( d \) ` ="86","400"`" s"} {}
Speed 1 mile per hour ( mph ) = 1 . 609 km / h size 12{1`" mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "mph" \) `=1 "." "609"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
1 nautical mile per hour ( naut ) = 1 . 852 km / h size 12{1`" nautical"`"mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "naut" \) `=1 "." "852"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
Angle 1 degree ( ° ) = 1 . 745 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" degree"` \( ° \) ` =1 "." "745" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
1 minute of arc ( ' ) = 1 / 60 degree size 12{1`" minute"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { ' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"} `" degree"} {}
1 second of arc ( '' ) = 1 / 60 minute of arc size 12{1`" second"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { '' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"`} " minute of arc"} {}
1 grad = 1 . 571 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" grad"` =1 "." "571" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
Energy 1 kiloton TNT ( kT ) = 4 . 2 × 10 12 J size 12{1`" kiloton"`" TNT"` \( "kT" \) ` =4 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " J"} {}
1 kilowatt hour ( kW h ) = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1`" kilowatt"`" hour"` \( "kW" cdot h \) ` =3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}
1 food calorie ( kcal ) = 4186 J size 12{1`" food"`"calorie"` \( "kcal" \) `="4186"`" J"} {}
1 calorie ( cal ) = 4 . 186 J size 12{1`" calorie"` \( "cal" \) `=4 "." "186"`" J"} {}
1 electron volt ( eV ) = 1 . 60 × 10 19 J size 12{1`" electron"`" volt"` \( "eV" \) ` =1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } " J"} {}
Pressure 1 atmosphere ( atm ) = 1 . 013 × 10 5 Pa size 12{1`" atmosphere"` \( "atm" \) ` =1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " Pa"} {}
1 millimeter of mercury ( mm Hg ) = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" millimeter"`"of"`"mercury"` \( "mm"`"Hg" \) `="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
1 torricelli ( torr ) = 1 mm Hg = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" torricelli"` \( "torr" \) `=1`" mm"``"Hg "="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
Nuclear decay rate 1 curie ( Ci ) = 3 . 70 × 10 10 Bq size 12{1`" curie"` \( "Ci" \) ` =3 "." "70" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " Bq"} {}
Useful formulae
Circumference of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} C = 2 πr = πd size 12{C=2πr=πd} {}
Area of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} A = πr 2 = πd 2 / 4 size 12{A=πr rSup { size 8{2} } = {πd rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {4} } {}
Area of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} A = 4 πr 2 size 12{A=4πr rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} V = 4 / 3 πr 3 size 12{V= left ( {4} slash {3} right ) left (πr rSup { size 8{3} } right )} {}

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
4
Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Physics 101' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask