<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Suppose that a system has an impulse response that is a sinc function, as shown in [link] , and that the input to the system is a white noise (as in specnoise.m ).

  1. Mimic convolex.m to numerically find the output.
  2. Plot the spectrum of the input and the spectrum of the output (using plotspec.m ). What kind of filter would you call this?

Convolution Multiplication

While the convolution operator [link] describes mathematically how a linear system acts on a given input, time domain approaches are often notparticularly revealing about the general behavior of the system.Who would guess, for instance in Exercises  [link] and [link] , that convolution with exponentials and sinc functions would act like lowpass filters?By working in the frequency domain, however, the convolution operator is transformed into a simpler point-by-pointmultiplication, and the generic behavior of the system becomes clearer.

The first step is to understand the relationship between convolution intime, and multiplication in frequency. Suppose that the two time signals w 1 ( t ) and w 2 ( t ) have Fourier transforms W 1 ( f ) and W 2 ( f ) . Then,

F { w 1 ( t ) * w 2 ( t ) } = W 1 ( f ) W 2 ( f ) .

To justify this property, begin with the definition of the Fourier transform [link] and apply the definition of convolution [link] to obtain

F { w 1 ( t ) * w 2 ( t ) } = t = - w 1 ( t ) * w 2 ( t ) e - j 2 π f t d t = t = - λ = - w 1 ( λ ) w 2 ( t - λ ) d λ e - j 2 π f t d t .

Reversing the order of integration and using the time shift property [link] produces

F { w 1 ( t ) * w 2 ( t ) } = λ = - w 1 ( λ ) t = - w 2 ( t - λ ) e - j 2 π f t d t d λ = λ = - w 1 ( λ ) W 2 ( f ) e - j 2 π f λ d λ = W 2 ( f ) λ = - w 1 ( λ ) e - j 2 π f λ d λ = W 1 ( f ) W 2 ( f ) .

Thus, convolution in the time domain is the same as multiplication in the frequency domain. See [link] .

The companion to the convolution property is the multiplication property, which says that multiplication in the time domainis equivalent to convolution in the frequency domain (see [link] ); that is,

F { w 1 ( t ) w 2 ( t ) } = W 1 ( f ) W 2 ( f ) = - W 1 ( λ ) W 2 ( f - λ ) d λ .

The usefulness of these convolution properties is apparent when applying them to linear systems.Suppose that H ( f ) is the Fourier transform of the impulse response h ( t ) . Suppose that X ( f ) is the Fourier transform of the input x ( t ) that is applied to the system. Then [link] and [link] show that the Fourier transform of the output is exactly equal to the product of the transforms of theinput and the impulse response, that is,

Y ( f ) = F { y ( t ) } = F { x ( t ) * h ( t ) } = F { h ( t ) } F { x ( t ) } = H ( f ) X ( f ) .

This can be rearranged to solve for

H ( f ) = Y ( f ) X ( f ) ,

which is called the frequency response of the system because it shows, for each frequency f , how the system responds. For instance, suppose that H ( f 1 ) = 3 at some frequency f 1 . Then whenever a sinusoid of frequency f 1 is input into the system, it will be amplified by a factor of 3.Alternatively, suppose that H ( f 2 ) = 0 at some frequency f 2 . Then whenever a sinusoid of frequency f 2 is input into the system, it is removed from the output(because it has been multiplied by a factor of 0).

The frequency response shows how the system treats inputs containing various frequencies. In fact, this propertywas already used repeatedly in [link] when drawing curves that describe the behavior of lowpass and bandpassfilters. For example, the filters of Figures  [link] , [link] , and  [link] are used to remove unwanted frequencies from the communications system. In each of these cases, the plotof the frequency response describes concretely and concisely how the system (or filter) affects the input, and how thefrequency content of the output relates to that of the input. Sometimes, the frequency response H ( f ) is called the transfer function of the system, since it “transfers” the input x ( t ) (with transform X ( f ) ) into the output y ( t ) (with transform Y ( f ) ).

Questions & Answers

a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
how did I we'll learn this
Noor Reply
f(x)= 2|x+5| find f(-6)
Prince Reply
f(n)= 2n + 1
Samantha Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Software receiver design' conversation and receive update notifications?