<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
(a) The frequency response of the channel. (b) The spectrum of the signal. (c) The product of (a) and (b) which is the spectrum of the received signal. (d) A BPF filter that has been shaped to undo the effect of the channel. (e) The product of (c) and (d), which combine to give a clean representation of the original spectrum of the signal.
(a) The frequency response of the channel. (b) The spectrum of the signal. (c) The product of (a) and (b)which is the spectrum of the received signal. (d) A BPF filter that has been shaped to undo the effectof the channel. (e) The product of (c) and (d), which combine to give a clean representation of the originalspectrum of the signal.

Thus, filtering in the receiver can be used to reshape the received signal within the frequency band of the transmissionas well as to remove unwanted out-of-band frequencies.

Fading

Another kind of corruption that a signal may encounter on its journey from the transmitter to the receiver is called“fading,” where the frequency response of the channel changes slowly over time. This may be caused because the transmission pathchanges. For instance, a reflection from a cloud might disappear when the cloud dissipates, an additional reflection mightappear when a truck moves into a narrow city street, or in a mobile device such as a cell phone the operatormight turn a corner and cause a large change in the local geometry of reflections. Fading may also occurwhen the transmitter and/or the receiver are moving. The Doppler effect shifts the frequencies slightly,causing interferences that may slowly change.

Such time-varying problems cannot be fixed by a single fixed filter; rather, the filter must somehow compensatedifferently at different times. This is an ideal application for the adaptive elements of [link] , though results from the study of linear filters will becrucial in understanding how the time variations in the frequency response can be represented as time-varyingcoefficients in the filter that represents the channel.

Linear systems: linear filters

Linear systems appear in many places in communication systems. The transmission channel is often modeled as a linear systemas in [link] . The bandpass filters used in the front end toremove other users (and to remove noises) are linear. Lowpass filters are crucial to the operation of the demodulatorsof Chapter  [link] . The equalizers of Chapter  [link] are linear filters that are designed during the operation of the receiveron the basis of certain characteristics of the received signal.

Time invariant linear systems can be described in any one of three equivalent ways:

  • The impulse response h ( t ) is a function of time that defines the output of a linear system when the input is an impulse (or δ ) function. When the input to the linear system is more complicated than a single impulse, the output can becalculated from the impulse response via the convolution operator.
  • The frequency response H ( f ) is a function of frequency that defines how the spectrum of the input is changed into the spectrum of the output. The frequency responseand the impulse response are intimately related: H ( f ) is the Fourier transform of h ( t ) .
  • A linear difference equation with constant coefficients (such as [link] ) shows explicitly how the linear system can be implemented and canbe useful in assessing stability and performance.

This chapter describes the three representations of linear systems and shows how they interrelate. The discussion beginsby exploring the δ -function, and then showing how it is used to define the impulse response. The convolution property of theFourier transform then shows that the transform of the impulse response describes how the system behaves in termsof the input and output spectra, and so it is called the frequency response. The final step is to show how the action of the linear system can be redescribedin the time domain as a difference (or as a differential) equation. This is postponed to Chapter  [link] .

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Software receiver design' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask