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This appendix is broken into several tables.

  • [link] , Important Constants
  • [link] , Submicroscopic Masses
  • [link] , Solar System Data
  • [link] , Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols
  • [link] , The Greek Alphabet
  • [link] , SI units
  • [link] , Selected British Units
  • [link] , Other Units
  • [link] , Useful Formulae
Important constants Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
c size 12{c} {} Speed of light in vacuum 2 . 99792458 × 10 8 m / s size 12{2 "." "99792458" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {} 3 . 00 × 10 8 m / s size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {}
G size 12{G} {} Gravitational constant 6 . 67408 ( 31 ) × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67384" \( "80" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 6 . 67 × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
N A size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } } {} Avogadro’s number 6 . 02214129 ( 27 ) × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02214129" \( "27" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {} 6 . 02 × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {}
k size 12{k} {} Boltzmann’s constant 1 . 3806488 ( 13 ) × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "3806488" \( "13" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {} 1 . 38 × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "38" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {}
R size 12{R} {} Gas constant 8 . 3144621 ( 75 ) J / mol K size 12{8 "." "3144621" \( "75" \) ` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K} } {} 8 . 31 J / mol K = 1 . 99 cal / mol K = 0 . 0821 atm L / mol K size 12{8 "." "31"` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K=1 "." "99"` {"cal"} slash {"mol" cdot K=0 "." "0821"` {"atm" cdot L} slash {"mol" cdot K} } } } {}
σ size 12{σ} {} Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5 . 670373 ( 21 ) × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "670373" \( "21" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {} 5 . 67 × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {}
k size 12{k} {} Coulomb force constant 8 . 987551788 . . . × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{8 "." "987551788" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8.99 × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{9 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
q e size 12{q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Charge on electron 1 . 602176565 ( 35 ) × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "602176565" \( "35" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {} 1 . 60 × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {}
ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permittivity of free space 8 . 854187817 . . . × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "854187817" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8 . 85 × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "85" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permeability of free space × 10 7 T m / A size 12{4π times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 7} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {} 1 . 26 × 10 6 T m / A size 12{1 "." "26" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {}
h size 12{h} {} Planck’s constant 6 . 62606957 ( 29 ) × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "62606957" \( "29" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {} 6 . 63 × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "63" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {}
Submicroscopic masses Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Electron mass 9 . 10938291 ( 40 ) × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "10938291" \( "40" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {} 9 . 11 × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "11" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {}
m p size 12{m rSub { size 8{p} } } {} Proton mass 1 . 672621777 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "672621777" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6726 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6726" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
m n size 12{m rSub { size 8{n} } } {} Neutron mass 1 . 674927351 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "674927351" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6749 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6749" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
u size 12{u} {} Atomic mass unit 1 . 660538921 ( 73 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "660538921" \( "73" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
Solar system data
Sun mass 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 96 × 10 8 m size 12{6 "." "96" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `m} {}
Earth-sun distance (average) 1 . 496 × 10 11 m size 12{1 "." "496" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
Earth mass 5 . 9736 × 10 24 kg size 12{5 "." "9736" times "10" rSup { size 8{"24"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 376 × 10 6 m size 12{6 "." "376" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {} {}
orbital period 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s "} {}
Moon mass 7 . 35 × 10 22 kg size 12{7 "." "35" times "10" rSup { size 8{"22"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 1 . 74 × 10 6 m size 12{1 "." "74" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {}
orbital period (average) 2 . 36 × 10 6 s size 12{2 "." "36" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " s"} {}
Earth-moon distance (average) 3 . 84 × 10 8 m size 12{3 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m"} {}
Metric prefixes for powers of ten and their symbols
Prefix Symbol Value Prefix Symbol Value
tera T 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {} deci d 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } } {}
giga G 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {} centi c 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } } {}
mega M 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} milli m 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {}
kilo k 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} micro μ size 12{μ} {} 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } } {}
hecto h 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} nano n 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } } {}
deka da 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{1} } } {} pico p 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } } {}
10 0 ( = 1 ) size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{0} } \( `=1` \) } {} femto f 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } } {}
The greek alphabet
Alpha Α size 12{Α} {} α size 12{α} {} Eta Η size 12{Η} {} η size 12{η} {} Nu Ν size 12{Ν} {} ν size 12{ν} {} Tau Τ size 12{Τ} {} τ size 12{τ} {}
Beta Β size 12{Β} {} β size 12{β} {} Theta Θ size 12{Θ} {} θ size 12{θ} {} Xi Ξ size 12{Ξ} {} ξ size 12{ξ} {} Upsilon Υ size 12{Υ} {} υ size 12{υ} {}
Gamma Γ size 12{Γ} {} γ size 12{γ} {} Iota Ι size 12{Ι} {} ι size 12{ι} {} Omicron Ο size 12{Ο} {} ο size 12{ο} {} Phi Φ size 12{Φ} {} ϕ size 12{ϕ} {}
Delta Δ size 12{Δ} {} δ size 12{δ} {} Kappa Κ size 12{Κ} {} κ size 12{κ} {} Pi Π size 12{Π} {} π size 12{π} {} Chi Χ size 12{Χ} {} χ size 12{χ} {}
Epsilon Ε size 12{Ε} {} ε size 12{ε} {} Lambda Λ size 12{Λ} {} λ size 12{λ} {} Rho Ρ size 12{Ρ} {} ρ size 12{ρ} {} Psi Ψ size 12{Ψ} {} ψ size 12{ψ} {}
Zeta Ζ size 12{Ζ} {} ζ size 12{ζ} {} Mu Μ size 12{Μ} {} μ size 12{μ} {} Sigma Σ size 12{Σ} {} σ size 12{σ} {} Omega Ω size 12{ %OMEGA } {} ω size 12{ω} {}
Si units
Entity Abbreviation Name
Fundamental units Length m meter
Mass kg kilogram
Time s second
Current A ampere
Supplementary unit Angle rad radian
Derived units Force N = kg m / s 2 size 12{N="kg" cdot {m} slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} newton
Energy J = kg m 2 / s 2 size 12{J="kg" cdot {m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} joule
Power W = J / s size 12{W= {J} slash {s} } {} watt
Pressure Pa = N / m 2 size 12{"Pa"= {N} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} pascal
Frequency Hz = 1 / s size 12{"Hz"= {1} slash {s} } {} hertz
Electronic potential V = J / C size 12{V= {J} slash {C} } {} volt
Capacitance F = C / V size 12{F= {C} slash {V} } {} farad
Charge C = s A size 12{C=s cdot A} {} coulomb
Resistance Ω = V / A size 12{ %OMEGA = {V} slash {A} } {} ohm
Magnetic field T = N / A m size 12{T= {N} slash { left (A cdot m right )} } {} tesla
Nuclear decay rate Bq = 1 / s size 12{"Bq"= {1} slash {s} } {} becquerel
Selected british units
Length 1 inch ( in . ) = 2 . 54 cm ( exactly ) size 12{1" inch " \( "in" "." \) =2 "." "54"" cm " \( "exactly" \) } {}
1 foot ( ft ) = 0 . 3048 m size 12{1" foot " \( "ft" \) =0 "." "3048"" m"} {}
1 mile ( mi ) = 1 . 609 km size 12{1" mile " \( "mi" \) =1 "." "609"" km"} {}
Force 1 pound ( lb ) = 4 . 448 N size 12{1" pound " \( "lb" \) =4 "." "448"" N"} {}
Energy 1 British thermal unit ( Btu ) = 1 . 055 × 10 3 J size 12{1" British thermal unit " \( "Btu" \) =1 "." "055" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} {}
Power 1 horsepower ( hp ) = 746 W size 12{1" horsepower " \( "hp" \) ="746"" W"} {}
Pressure 1 lb / in 2 = 6 . 895 × 10 3 Pa size 12{1 {"lb"} slash {"in" rSup { size 8{2} } } =6 "." "895" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " Pa"} {}
Other units
Length 1 light year ( ly ) = 9 . 46 × 10 15 m size 12{1`" light"`" year"` \( "ly" \) ` =9 "." "46" times "10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } " m"} {}
1 astronomical unit ( au ) = 1 . 50 × 10 11 m size 12{1`" astronomical"`" unit"` \( "au" \) ` =1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
1 nautical mile = 1 . 852 km size 12{1`" nautical"`" mile"` =1 "." "852"`" km"} {}
1 angstrom ( Å ) = 10 10 m size 12{1`" angstrom"` \( Å \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "10"} } " m"} {}
Area 1 acre ( ac ) = 4 . 05 × 10 3 m 2 size 12{1`" acre"` \( "ac" \) ` =4 "." "05" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 square foot ( ft 2 ) = 9 . 29 × 10 2 m 2 size 12{1`"square"`"foot"` \( "ft" rSup { size 8{2} } \) ` =9 "." "29" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 barn ( b ) = 10 28 m 2 size 12{1`" barn"` \( b \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "28"} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume 1 liter ( L ) = 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" liter"` \( L \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
1 U.S. gallon ( gal ) = 3 . 785 × 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" U" "." S "." `" gallon"` \( "gal" \) ` =3 "." "785" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
Mass 1 solar mass = 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1`" solar"`" mass"` =1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } " kg"} {}
1 metric ton = 10 3 kg size 12{1`" metric"`" ton"` ="10" rSup { size 8{3} } " kg"} {}
1 atomic mass unit ( u ) = 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1`" atomic"`" mass"`" unit"`` \( u \) ` =1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } " kg"} {}
Time 1 year ( y ) = 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{1`" year"` \( y \) ` =3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s"} {}
1 day ( d ) = 86 , 400 s size 12{1`" day"` \( d \) ` ="86","400"`" s"} {}
Speed 1 mile per hour ( mph ) = 1 . 609 km / h size 12{1`" mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "mph" \) `=1 "." "609"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
1 nautical mile per hour ( naut ) = 1 . 852 km / h size 12{1`" nautical"`"mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "naut" \) `=1 "." "852"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
Angle 1 degree ( ° ) = 1 . 745 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" degree"` \( ° \) ` =1 "." "745" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
1 minute of arc ( ' ) = 1 / 60 degree size 12{1`" minute"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { ' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"} `" degree"} {}
1 second of arc ( '' ) = 1 / 60 minute of arc size 12{1`" second"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { '' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"`} " minute of arc"} {}
1 grad = 1 . 571 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" grad"` =1 "." "571" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
Energy 1 kiloton TNT ( kT ) = 4 . 2 × 10 12 J size 12{1`" kiloton"`" TNT"` \( "kT" \) ` =4 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " J"} {}
1 kilowatt hour ( kW h ) = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1`" kilowatt"`" hour"` \( "kW" cdot h \) ` =3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}
1 food calorie ( kcal ) = 4186 J size 12{1`" food"`"calorie"` \( "kcal" \) `="4186"`" J"} {}
1 calorie ( cal ) = 4 . 186 J size 12{1`" calorie"` \( "cal" \) `=4 "." "186"`" J"} {}
1 electron volt ( eV ) = 1 . 60 × 10 19 J size 12{1`" electron"`" volt"` \( "eV" \) ` =1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } " J"} {}
Pressure 1 atmosphere ( atm ) = 1 . 013 × 10 5 Pa size 12{1`" atmosphere"` \( "atm" \) ` =1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " Pa"} {}
1 millimeter of mercury ( mm Hg ) = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" millimeter"`"of"`"mercury"` \( "mm"`"Hg" \) `="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
1 torricelli ( torr ) = 1 mm Hg = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" torricelli"` \( "torr" \) `=1`" mm"``"Hg "="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
Nuclear decay rate 1 curie ( Ci ) = 3 . 70 × 10 10 Bq size 12{1`" curie"` \( "Ci" \) ` =3 "." "70" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " Bq"} {}
Useful formulae
Circumference of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} C = 2 πr = πd size 12{C=2πr=πd} {}
Area of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} A = πr 2 = πd 2 / 4 size 12{A=πr rSup { size 8{2} } = {πd rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {4} } {}
Area of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} A = 4 πr 2 size 12{A=4πr rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} V = 4 / 3 πr 3 size 12{V= left ( {4} slash {3} right ) left (πr rSup { size 8{3} } right )} {}

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics of the world around us. OpenStax CNX. May 21, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11797/1.1
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