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Hypertext and the world wide web

The most remarkable species of book to punctuate the equilibrium of the twentieth century was the entirelynew literary form of hypertext. [Kilgour, p. 155]

The modern concept of hypertext seems to have originated with the 1945 Atlantic Monthly article by Vannevar Bush, who used his ideas of how the mind works “by associations” topropose the memex , a forerunner to linked hypertext.

In the early 1960s, after reading Bush’s article, Douglas Engelbart started the Augmentation Research Center(ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute. The ARC used a precursor of hypertext in what it called the On-Line System . Engelbart talked about asynchronous collaboration among teams distributedgeographically, about the use of computers to augment human intellect, and about the idea of “bootstrapping” as an iterativeand coadaptive learning processes or a feedback system. All of these ideas show up in Connexions , to be described later.

The actual term, “hypertext,” was coined around 1965 by Ted Nelson, who developed the idea in a complexsystem he called Xanadu.

By “hypertext,” I mean non-sequential writing–text that branches and allows choices to the reader, bestread at an interactive screen. As popularly conceived, this is a series of text chunks connected by links which offer the readerdifferent pathways. [Nelson 1965]

A form of hypertext has come into common use on the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) with the hypertext markuplanguage (HTML), the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and the browser, Mosaic , which evolved into the familiar Firefox, Netscape, Internet Explorer , and other browsers. HTML enables the linking of a point in a text to another point in that text or another text.This linking is created by the author to allow a new control by the reader.

This system, which breaks up the usual linear or sequential structure of the traditional book so that readers caneasily branch to related topics, may be more compatible with the way people think and learn (that is what Bush and Engelbart had inmind). The traditional book tries to bring this ability with the use of page references, footnotes, endnotes, sidebars, and otherprint techniques. The table of contents and index are attempts to create a more flexible structure. In a way, these structures areprecursors to hypertext and the digital search engines.

Ted Nelson talks about the free-flowing live documents on the network being subject to constant new use andlinkage, and those new links continually becoming interactively available. Any detached copy someone keeps is frozen and dead,lacking access to the new linkage. This is an interesting response to Plato’s concern about the harmful effect of literacy andwriting. If literacy and writing “killed” the text, then perhaps hypertext brings it back to life in an even more flexible form.Indeed, it may create a format that we cannot imagine now.

Hypertext would not have achieved its broad impact without the development of the modern Internet, WWW, and thehigh-density storage of hard disks and CD-ROMs. Again we have an interesting case of unintended consequences, with the seminalARPAnet evolving from a research and defense tool into the popular business, educational, communication, and personal informationlifeline it has become today.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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