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A supportive commercial enterprise accompanied the development of literacy. At first, manuscripts were writtenfrom the orally composed stories. Perhaps Homer’s epic writings came into being this way. Later, manuscripts were composed directlyin writing, never having been uttered. An industry developed that would copy these “originals” under commission, as a tailor sewssuits. After a literate public developed, the scribes would make several copies of a manuscript and then offer them for sale much asa clothing store operates now. Along with this commercial side, a legal device came into being. If money could be made, the questionof ownership arose and the concept of the “right to copy” or the “copyright” was invented.

If we step back and look at this comparison of the oral and written cultures, we see still another interesting andpertinent dimension that has to do with physiology. If I tell you a story, then I transfer a piece of information from my brain intoyours. On the other hand, if I write that story down on paper and you read it, then I have also transferred the piece of informationfrom my brain into yours, but it has gone through a quite different part of the brain and nervous system. In the first case, a vocaland auditory process occurred. A blind person could participate. In the second case, an image and visual process occurred, and a deafperson could participate. In the first case, a person could address a crowd and a certain efficiency could be achieved, but in thesecond case, a much larger audience could be reached and spread over time as well as space.

Technology has continued to expand both the means of communication, with the telephone, radio, and taperecorder extending the vocal/auditory process and the telegraph, fax, television, and email extending the visual process. Is thiswhat the Sumerians and Greeks, the inventors of writing and the alphabet, had in mind? Surely not, but some unintended consequencesproduce phenomenally positive ends.

In this section, we have tried to indicate the incredible effects that literacy has had on human culture. Thepoint is that some of the predicted negative effects did occur and many of the positive effects that occurred were not predicted. Thiswas true because the negative effects were mainly the destruction of something that was known. The positive effects, however,involved the creation of things that were completely unknown in the preliterate culture. Some of those positive effects were initiallyseen as negative. These factors need to be very carefully considered as we try to predict the future of the next phase ofinformation systems. Indeed, the negative “unintended consequence” is the effect that we wish to understand and minimize.

Reading and writing seem to fit the definition of technology quite well and can be studied as such. For greater depth and more detail on literacy and writing, one should read theworks of Parry, Ong, Havelock, and Goody. For an example of how writing and literacy are viewed as technology, see Goody’s Chapter8: “Technologies of the Intellect: Writing and the Written Word.”

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, A brave new digi-world and caribbean literacy : a search for solutions. OpenStax CNX. Apr 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10600/1.10
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