# 0.2 The atom  (Page 5/14)

 Page 5 / 14

## The neutron

The neutron is electrically neutral i.e. it carries no charge at all. Like the proton, it is much heavier than the electron and its mass is $1,6749×{10}^{-27}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{kg}$ (slightly heavier than the proton).

## Interesting fact

Rutherford predicted (in 1920) that another kind of particle must be present in the nucleus along with the proton. He predicted this becauseif there were only positively charged protons in the nucleus, then it should break into bits because of the repulsive forces between the like-charged protons! Also,if protons were the only particles in the nucleus, then a helium nucleus (atomic number 2) would havetwo protons and therefore only twice the mass of hydrogen. However, it is actually four times heavier than hydrogen. This suggested that there must be something else inside the nucleus as well as the protons.To make sure that the atom stays electrically neutral, this particle would have to be neutral itself. In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron and measured its mass.

 proton neutron electron Mass (kg) $1,6726×{10}^{-27}$ $1,6749×{10}^{-27}$ $9,11×{10}^{-31}$ Units of charge $+1$ $0$ $-1$ Charge (C) $1,6×{10}^{-19}$ $0$ $-1,6×{10}^{-19}$

## Interesting fact

Unlike the electron which is thought to be a point particle and unable to be broken up into smaller pieces, the proton and neutron can be divided. Protons and neutrons are built up of smaller particles called quarks . The proton and neutron are made up of 3 quarks each.

## Atomic number and atomic mass number

The chemical properties of an element are determined by the charge of its nucleus, i.e. by the number of protons . This number is called the atomic number and is denoted by the letter Z .

Atomic number (Z)

The number of protons in an atom

You can find the atomic number on the periodic table. The atomic number is an integer and ranges from 1 to about 118.

The mass of an atom depends on how many nucleons its nucleus contains. The number of nucleons, i.e. the total number of protons plus neutrons, is called the atomic mass number and is denoted by the letter A .

Atomic mass number (A)

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Standard notation shows the chemical symbol, the atomic mass number and the atomic number of an element as follows:

A nuclide is a distinct kind of atom or nucleus characterized by the number of protons and neutrons in the atom. To be absolutely correct, when we represent atoms like we do here, then we should call them nuclides.

For example, the iron nucleus which has 26 protons and 30 neutrons, is denoted as:

${}_{26}^{56}\mathrm{Fe}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}$

where the atomic number is $Z=26$ and the mass number $A=56$ . The number of neutrons is simply the difference $N=A-Z$ .

Don't confuse the notation we have used above with the way this information appears on the Periodic Table. On the Periodic Table, the atomic number usually appears in the top lefthand corner of the block or immediately above the element's symbol. The number below the element's symbol is its relative atomic mass . This is not exactly the same as the atomic mass number. This will be explained in "Isotopes" . The example of iron is shown below.

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
is it 3×y ?
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
im not good at math so would this help me
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP