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Celera's surprising and controversial success was due to several factors. First off, Celera was able to build upon the knowledge that previous sequencing efforts had gained through years of research and experience, including the Human Genome Project and The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR). Second, Celera's sequencing facilities were unparalleled in their sheer size. Celera's sequencing facilities had 50x the sequencing capacity of TIGR. Finally, because the results of the HGP were public, Celera was able to use their data to help align their shotgun sequences in the whole genome.

The human genome is 2.91-billion base pairs in length. Celera estimated that approx. 26,383 genes exist in the human genome, but this number has been a source of continued controversy with other estimates reaching as high as 150,000 genes (which is almost certainly much too high). Of the estimate 26,383 genes, 42% have an unknown function. The average number of exons in the predicted genes range between 4-5 and the typical exon length is around 100-300 base pairs. The average size of a human gene is around 27,000bp, with typical ranges between 20,000 and 50,000bp. A quick calculation will demonstrate that human genes are mostly intronic in composition. The average intron can be thousands of base pairs in size and can be as large as tens of thousands of base pairs (compare this to the typical exon with a paltry size of ~200bp). Coding regions in the human genome are estimated to account for only around 3% of the total DNA sequence, intronic sequences contribute ~30%, and intergenic regions ~67%.

The expansion of non-coding DNA in humans is particularly striking when compared to other metazoan eukaryotes. For example, the human genome is 30x larger than the C. elegans and the Drosophila genome, but has only ~2-3x as many genes. Furthermore, human genes are 10x larger than fly and worm genes, but the vast majority of this increase in size is due to intronic expansion; their exons are essentially the same size. Repeat sequences are another very prominent feature of the human genome. 35% of the entire human genome (including coding regions) is classified as repetitive, which is quite high already, but if we examine non-coding regions the proportion of repetitive DNA climbs to 46%. Compare these numbers to Arabidopsis which has a relatively low percentage of repeat sequences in the genome, 10%. But you should also keep in mind that Vivia faba, or the humble broadbean, is composed of upwards of 80% repetitive DNA.

Another important feature of the human (and other mammalian) genomes is CpG islands. A CpG island is a region of DNA that has a higher relative proportion of CpG dinucleotides when compared to the entire genome. This increased CpG density is significant because these regions tend to be unmethylated and therefore are believed to promote the initiation of transcription. This belief is drawn mainly from two observations: 1) most of the housekeeping genes (which are constitutively expressed genes) have CpG islands at the 5' end of the transcript, and 2) CpG island methylation is known to correlate with gene inactivation during gene imprinting and tissue specific gene expression.

Mus musculus

M. musculus

The mouse genome was sequenced by the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium in 2002 (Nature, Dec. 2002). Like the human genome, the mouse genome is large, 2.5Gb, only 14% smaller than the human genome. Gene prediction techniques estimate that there are 30,000 protein-coding genes in the genome. Approx. 99% of mouse genes have a direct, assignable human homologue. These genes are distributed among 19 autosomal chromosomes and one X chromosome. The mouse genome contains fewer CpG islands than the human genome (15,550 compared with 33,000) and, like the human genome, a large proportion of the mouse genome is composed of lowcomplexity repeat sequences. Sequencing the mouse genome was particularly important for a couple of reasons: the mouse is a ubiquitous as a research model, and for use as a comparative tool against the human genome.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Genefinding. OpenStax CNX. Jun 17, 2003 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10205/1.1
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