# 0.2 Colors, images and videos in matlab

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## What composes an image?

Each image is composed of an array of M*N pixels (contraction of“picture element”) with M rows and N columns of pixels. Each pixel contains a certain value for red, green and blue. Varying these values for red, green, blue (RGB) we can get almost any color.

## Color detection

The RGB format is a practical method to represent color images. Matlab creates three matrices (or three M x N arrays) with each matrix representing normalized components of red, green or blue to read and store each of the frames of the video. Any pixel’s color is determined by the combination of Red, Green and Blue values stored in the three matrices at that pixel’s location. This is how Matlab reads and manipulates .jpg files.

Images:

`picture (row, column, rgb value)`

For example, picture (12, 78, 1) corresponds to the red component of the pixel at row 12 and column 78; picture(12, 78, 2) corresponds to the green component of the pixel and picture(12, 78, 3) gives us the blue component of the pixel at that location.

Videos:

`frames(row, column, rgb value, frame)`

Videos have an extra dimension for the frame number. So frames(12,78,1,5) would correspond to the red component of the pixel in the 12th row and 78th column of the 5th frame. To get the entire frame, we could just say frames(:,:,:,5).

## Acquiring images from the webcam in matlab

How you acquire the images from the camera depends a lot on what software you are using to implement it. Creating the interface between the computer and the drum using a lower level language like C or C++ will give you a lot of flexibility, but it will also involve a lot of work and background knowledge. Fortunately for us, Matlab’s Image Acquisition Toolbox has a variety of simple functions that can be used to create the interface. The next few paragraphs will describe these functions and how we used them in some detail.

For Matlab to recognize the video camera you have to create it as an object using the command `obj=videoinput(‘winvideo’)` . Matlab will automatically find the webcam connected to your computer. Once it is an object in your workspace you can edit its settings, such as the number of frames per second, to optimize it for your project. `preview()` and `getframe()` are two useful functions for determining if the camera has been positioned properly. The first allows you to see what the camera sees, without collecting any data from it, and the second acquires a single snapshot and stores it as in image.

Now we can start recording the video. With the `start(obj)` command, the camera will be triggered and will start to collect as many frames as specified by the FramesPerTrigger property. These frames are stored in the camera’s buffer memory. These frames are stored in the 4D array as described above.

To retrieve them from the buffer you could use either the `getdata()` function or the `peekdata()` function.

## Getdata(obj);

When this statement is encountered, the program retrieves all the frames acquired at the last trigger and then empties the buffer.

## Peekdata(obj,m);

This function allows us to“peek”at the last M frames collected by the camera. The frames are copied, but not cleared, from the camera’s buffer into Matlab’s workspace.

Both functions take about the same amount of time to run. Interestingly, the number of frames acquired at a time does not affect the execution time much. It takes about as long to acquire 1 frame as it does to acquire 50. Therefore, to make the program more efficient, we should collect large chunks of data at a time.

To make sure that we don’t miss any of the action while the user is waving the drumsticks around in front of the camera, we should also make sure that we can get all the frames from when the program starts running till the user turns of the LEDs. Due to memory limitations, our computer could collect maximum of 240 frames, or about 8 seconds of the video, which is clearly not enough. It is unlikely that your computer could do much better.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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