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The middle colonies (new york and pennsylvania)

New York was originally a Dutch colony with its major port city of New Amsterdam (now New York), major population center of New Ark (now Newark, NJ), and its colonial capital at Fort Orange (now Albany). England and the Dutch fought a series of naval wars in the seventeenth and eighteenth century over trade routes and trading posts. The end result was that England took the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in 1664 and renamed it New York. Now New York had some problems. First, New York did not grow economically. For example, about five or six English men owned most of New York and they rented lands called patroonships. It was actually cheaper to buy land then rent however there was very little land available to purchase, so the population outside of New York City did not grow. The wealthy elite who owned most of New York did not want to sell the land because they had hoped the price would go up dramatically, so they just rented the land. However, people simply came to New York and squatted -they lived on parcels of land without having proper ownership of the land. And lad that was sold tended to have vaguely drafted boundaries between parcels of land. That resulted in another major problem: Lawyers. Lawyers flooded into New York in large measure to try land cases in colonial courts. Some lawyers sided with the squatters while others sided with the land owners. Either way lawyers got paid. Meanwhile farmers could not farm and even the port of New York was horrifically underused. Another major problem was political infighting. For example, the 1689 Leisler's Rebellion. A year before, the Catholic king of England, James II lost his throne in a bloodless "revolution (the Glorious Revolution), and fled to France. Non Catholics in the British colonies were concerned that James II, in France, would support a French rebellion in the Americas. "In New York as well, democratic movements were afoot. An armed mob seized Fort James and installed Jacob Leisler, a militia commander and immigrant from Germany, as the head of a new government. Leisler's willful personality was similar to that of Peter Stuyvesant, but for a while he enjoyed popular support because he established a legislative assembly that was not dominated by the wealthy merchants and landowners. Leisler's rule was short-lived. A new governor was dispatched by William III in 1691. Leisler was convicted of treason and sentenced to be executed.In May 1691, Leisler and an associate were taken to the public square, which today is City Hall Park in New York City. There, before a hymn-singing crowd, they uttered their final remarks and were hanged. The bodies were taken down – the associate semiconscious – and their heads were hacked off by the executioner's axe. Supporters removed pieces of hair and clothing from the corpses as mementos, while the opponents had Leisler's heart cut out and held aloft. The heads were sewn back on the bodies and they were buried" (http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h564.html). Lesiler's supports were upset in large measure because Leisler was seen as a good governor (and New York had a long line of bad governors who had to idea how to govern or would embezzle from the treasury). Slavery was part of New York's early colonial history and at times slavery resulted in violence when slaves would rebel or when fear of a slave rebellion caused whites to kill Africans, such as in 1741. A slave rebellion was discovered and put down, but 29 Africans were killed and 70 were banished from New York. Slavery was still technically legal in the colony of New York, but after 1741 there would not be any slaves in the colony. Finally, the colony of New York created our idea of a free press. John Peter Zenger was the publisher of an anti-government newspaper called the Gazette. The Gazette was a constant critic of Governor William Cosby. In 1734 the governor accused Zenger of "seditious libel." Zenger was arrested. He hired a successful attorney named Andrew Hamilton (father to Alexander Hamilton) to defend Zenger. Hamilton argued in court that it is not libel when the truth is written. Zenger should not have been arrested just because the stories about Cosby were personally embarrassing to Cosby. The court ruled in favor of Zenger, thus establishing the idea of freedom of the press as well as our right to address the government. PENNSYLVANIA. Chartered in 1681 and founded the next year as a proprietary colony under William Penn, Pennsylvania was originally created to be a haven for England's Quakers (the Society of Friends). The Quakers were viewed both as progressive and quaint.For example, Quakers refused to swear oaths, they were also pacifists so Quakers would typically not enter the military. Quaker women were viewed as religiously equal and thus Quaker women held leadership positions in their church, spoke publicly, and even served as ministers. In this sense, Quakers allowed so much room for women that women who wanted to work in the numerous reform movements from slavery to suffrage throughout what became the United States will join Quaker communities. Quakers were supposed to treat the Indians as human beings -namely not to steal their land but rather to buy it from them. The relationship between the Quakers and the Indians was amiable because of the Quakers’ friendliness and Penn’s policy of purchasing land from the Indians. Penn tried to protect the Indians in their dealings with settlers and traders. The relationship was so peaceful that the Quakers often used the Indians as babysitters. Penn even went so far as to learn the language of the Delaware Indians, and for nearly fifty years the two groups lived in relative harmony. However, Penn’s acceptance of all people was a double-edged sword for the Indians, because as many non-Quaker settlers came to the colony they undermined Penn’s benevolent policy. Quakers were not allowed to carry weapons unless going to hunt because weapons were viewed as an aggressive act. Finally, Quakers were the first religion in the Americans to denounce slavery. So Pennsylvania was originally designed to be a slave-free colony. People besides Quakers moved to Pennsylvania to include Germans, Scotch-Irish, and the Amish. The colony becomes prosperous rather quickly and as not all colonists purchase land from Indians, tension along the frontier is evidenced in Anglo-Indian clashes that eventually led to major warfare among the English colonists, Delaware Indians, and the French in the 1760s.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Us history to 1877. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11483/1.1
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