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Step five:

  • Check for Statistical Significance
  • 1. Go to the Chi-Square Test Box
  • 2. Find Pearson Chi-Square row and Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) column cell
Chi-square tests
Value df Asymp.Sig.(2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 833.549 a 118 .000
Likelihood Ratio 907.609 118 .000
Linear-by-Linear 16.845 1 .000
Association
N of Valid Cases 1182

a. 81 cells (45.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .23.

Step six:

  • Check Effect Size
  • 1. Go to the Symmetric Measures Box
  • 2. Find the Nominal by Nominal Cramer’s V row and Value column cell
  • 3. The effect size is there and must be related to Cohen (1998)
  • Small effect size = .10 (range of .10 to .299)
  • Medium effect size = .30 (range of .30 to .499)
  • Large effect size = .50 (range of .50 to 1.00)
Cramer's V cannot be greater than 1.00
Symmetric measures
Value Approx Sig.
Nominal by Phi .840 .000
Nominal Cramer's V .94 .000
N of Valid Cases 1182

Step seven:

  • Numerical Sentence
  • 1. X 2 (df) sp = sp Pearson Chi-Square/Value Cell, sp p sp < sp .001
  • X 2 (1)= 833.55, p <.001
  • [Note. The sp refers to a space being present where the sp is located.]

Step eight:

  • 1. Go to the IV by DV table (i.e., the one above the Chi-Square Tests table)
  • 2. Examine the percentages to determine where the statistically significant differences are

Step nine:

  • Narrative and Interpretation Outline
  • 1. Let the reader know what statistical procedure was conducted.
  • 2. Explain how the assumptions for this statistical procedure were met.
  • 3. Report the results from the test
  • 4. Interpret the findings

Writing up your statistics

So, how do you "write up" your Research Questions and your Results? Schuler W. Huck (2000) in his seminal book entitled, Reading Statistics and Research, points to the importance of your audience understanding and making sense of your research in written form. Huck further states:

This book is designed to help people decipher what researchers are trying to communicate in the written or oral summaries of their investigations. Here, the goal is simply to distill meaning from the words, symbols, tables, and figures included in the research report. To be competent in this arena, one must not only be able to decipher what's presented but also to "fill in the holes"; this is the case because researchers typically assume that those receiving the research report are familiar with unmentioned details of the research process and statistical treatment of data.

A Note from the Editors

Researchers and Professors John Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef understand this critical issue, so often neglected or not addressed by other authors and researchers. They point to the importance of doctoral students "writing up their statistics" in a way that others can understand your reporting and as importantly, interpret the meaning of your significant findings and implications for the preparation and practice of educational leadership. Slate and LeBouef provide you with a model for "writing up your Chi-square statistics."

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Chi-square Staistics

References

  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum
  • Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=326
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient. Research in the Schools, 9 (1) , 73-90.
  • Skewness. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=356
  • Skewness. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. WEB: (External Link)

Questions & Answers

An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Akash
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
Carole
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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