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Privatization in argentina, bolivia and chile

An alternative solution may be, in some nations, privatization of the water supply, so that markets may play a role in promoting sustainable use of drinking water. In most of the world, provision of drinking water is dominated by small, inefficient government departments or government owned enterprises (as in India). But in dozens of countries, infant mortality from unsafe water remains very high. What can happen when reliance is placed on market mechanisms instead of government enterprises to provide water? Here is one example.

In the 1990s Argentina embarked on one of the largest privatization campaigns in the world, including the privatization of local water companies covering approximately 30% of the country’s municipalities. Argentinean researchers later found child mortality fell 8% in areas that privatized their water services overall; the effect was largest (26%) in the poorest areas. Privatization was associated with significant reductions in deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases. However, the Argentina program died due to politics.

So, can privatization of water distribution sometimes yield the expected results? Experience suggests yes, according to a recent Report of the World Bank See the World Bank study by Gassner, Popov and Pushak, Does Private Sector Participation Improve Performance in Elec. Power and water distribution? Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.

Using data from all over the world, from emerging nations in Latin America, Asia, Africa and Mideast the author shows that privately run water and electric power companies outperform government owned enterprises in:

  • Production
  • Operational efficiency and probably
  • Sanitation
  • Avoiding water wastage

The only negative they observe in water privatization: staff reductions. State-owned firms in almost any activity anywhere tend everywhere to have 20% - 50% more workers than needed for the job. Payrolls are often padded with political supporters of the government.

Privatization was tried also in Bolivia in the early years of this century but ran afoul of politics.

Privatization of water supply in Chile began in 1990. In the period 1990-94, average prices for water were increased by 90%, to enable prices to cover the marginal of providing water. Water consumption fell by 10% over the period even as the population and economy grew substantially.

Did the poor suffer? The poor never need to suffer from policies to secure sustainable of water, energy or even food.

To protect the poor, Chile provided a 2-prong subsidy program:

  1. Poorest families received a 15% discount on water use.
  2. The poorest families got a direct cash subsidy to cover higher water cost. The subsidy reached 95% of poor households

Earlier, we stressed that water issues extend well beyond possible shortages of supply. Water quality also needs to be considered.

Consider, for example China in 2014. Contaminated groundwater has become a really serious problem in China, as we noted earlier in this chapter. About half the population uses water supplies heavily polluted by animal, human and industrial waste (some of this pollution is now showing up in by way in Chinese exports of wallboard and other products.

Chinese cities are seriously polluted by sewage. The Chinese Academy of Sciences stated in 2005 that 21 cities along the Yellow River register dangerous levels of contamination in foodgrains (especially rice) and other food stuffs. Just to achieve a 50% treatment rate, China would have to build 10,000 new sewage treatment plants. Clearly for China, there is no environmental problem more serious than that for water .

Finally, China is beginning to take steps to rectify its abuse of water resources. In 2009 Shanghai and Beijing both raised water prices substantially. Shanghai rates increased by 25%. There was another 22% raise in November of that year. In Nanjing rates went up by 12%, but direct subsidies were given to the poor to compensate them.

More countries are beginning to recognize the role of pricing in water conservation. Indonesia uses a flawed system called Pasten. Jordan , a very arid country, has adapted a pricing system that encourages farmers to select water efficient crops (not cotton). Chile has introduced a spot market for irrigation water, which relies on the buying and selling of property rights to water. This has notably reduced use of irrigation water in the valley south of Santiago.

We close on a somewhat positive note. Not all developing nations face severe or acute shortages of water: Brazil is blessed with water, even after it destroyed so much of the tropical forest.

Brazil has 8,000 billion cubic kilometers of renewable water each year. This is #1 among all nations, and is more than for all of Asia alone (with 4 billion population). Brazil’s population is approaching 250 million. So Brazil’s per year capita availability of water is 32 times that of Asia.

With this very generous water endowment, and with very good Brazilian research on tropical agriculture, Brazil in 2011 became the largest food exporter in the world. This has all been done without any significant government support, except for subsidies on seed research.

Questions & Answers

if theta =30degree so COS2 theta = 1- 10 square theta upon 1 + tan squared theta
Martin Reply
how to compute this 1. g(1-x) 2. f(x-2) 3. g (-x-/5) 4. f (x)- g (x)
Yanah Reply
hi
John
hi
Grace
what sup friend
John
not much For functions, there are two conditions for a function to be the inverse function:   1--- g(f(x)) = x for all x in the domain of f     2---f(g(x)) = x for all x in the domain of g Notice in both cases you will get back to the  element that you started with, namely, x.
Grace
sin theta=3/4.prove that sec square theta barabar 1 + tan square theta by cosec square theta minus cos square theta
Umesh Reply
acha se dhek ke bata sin theta ke value
Ajay
sin theta ke ja gha sin square theta hoga
Ajay
I want to know trigonometry but I can't understand it anyone who can help
Siyabonga Reply
Yh
Idowu
which part of trig?
Nyemba
functions
Siyabonga
trigonometry
Ganapathi
differentiation doubhts
Ganapathi
hi
Ganapathi
hello
Brittany
Prove that 4sin50-3tan 50=1
Sudip Reply
f(x)= 1 x    f(x)=1x  is shifted down 4 units and to the right 3 units.
Sebit Reply
f (x) = −3x + 5 and g (x) = x − 5 /−3
Sebit
what are real numbers
Marty Reply
I want to know partial fraction Decomposition.
Adama Reply
classes of function in mathematics
Yazidu Reply
divide y2_8y2+5y2/y2
Sumanth Reply
wish i knew calculus to understand what's going on 🙂
Dashawn Reply
@dashawn ... in simple terms, a derivative is the tangent line of the function. which gives the rate of change at that instant. to calculate. given f(x)==ax^n. then f'(x)=n*ax^n-1 . hope that help.
Christopher
thanks bro
Dashawn
maybe when i start calculus in a few months i won't be that lost 😎
Dashawn
what's the derivative of 4x^6
Axmed Reply
24x^5
James
10x
Axmed
24X^5
Taieb
Thanks for this helpfull app
Axmed Reply
secA+tanA=2√5,sinA=?
richa Reply
tan2a+tan2a=√3
Rahulkumar
classes of function
Yazidu
if sinx°=sin@, then @ is - ?
NAVJIT Reply
the value of tan15°•tan20°•tan70°•tan75° -
NAVJIT
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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