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1. curtail deforestation especially tropical deforestation

We have already noted in Chapter ___ that after China and the U.S., the largest source of CO 2 emissions has in years from 1975-2010, come from Brazil and Indonesia, owing to annual deforestation of wide swaths of their tropical forests. Forests annually absorb millions of tons of CO 2 through photosynthesis. As we noted earlier forest destruction and in particular burning of forests is responsible for 20% of Global Carbon emissions annually. Higher taxes and royalties on timber harvests, reforms on property rights, plus removal of all subsidies for forest clearing and for ethanol from palm oil would contribute materially to curtailing buildup of greenhouse gasses, and contribute to other economic and environmental goals as well.

2. drastically curtail all subsidies for consumption of fossil fuels (and ethanol from corn) worldwide

We have previously discussed in Chapter 17, energy subsidies at length and their impact on income distribution (very pro-rich) and resource allocation (economic waste).

In 2012 a dozen nations account for 75% of the worlds subsidies on oil, gas and diesel fuel. All but one are emerging nations. Iran tops the list at $82 Billion. Saudi Arabia was next at $81 Billion, then Russia, China and India. Each of these spent $60 Billion on the subsidy. Other major energy subsidizers: Venezuela, Egypt, Mexico and Algeria, and until late 2014, Indonesia.

In addition mindless U.S. subsidies to 120 plants producing ethanol from corn are as reckless and pernicious as any subsidy anywhere.

The policy has been clearly misguided. Scientists in 2007 warned of the danger of failure of the Federal Corn for Ethanol policy as an anti-global warming tool. Too many Midwest farmers plowed over virgin land to plant more corn. Since 2007, 6.7 million acres of grassland and conservation land has been lost since the federal government required that gasoline be blended with ethanol. How big is 6.7 million acres? Larger than Yellowstone Park, Everglades Park and Yosemite Park all combined. Further 1700 gallons of increasingly precious fresh water is required for the corn needed for each gallon of ethanol. Plowing virgin grasslands to get more acerage for corn releases CO 2 locked into the soil. Making matters worse, the corn farmers have used increasing volumes of fertilizer especially nitrogen and other chemicals that eventually end up in rivers in the region and ultimately, the Gulf of Mexico.

The nitrogen and other chemicals leak into watersheds. Massive applications of fertilizer for corn in the Midwest have vastly enlarged the “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico – an 8,000 sq. mile area where nothing can survive. As of 2009, 30% of the nation’s corn crop was used to make ethanol that amounted to 8% of U.S. gasoline supplies. Just to replace 10% of U.S. gas and diesel consumption, the U.S. would need to convert 40% of cropland to ethanol.

3. enact new and/or increase existing carbon taxes

Existing taxes can be increased to provide further market -based incentives to curtail growth of CO 2 emissions. In any dynamic strategy, such taxes are best linked to actual global warming. Once the relationship between atmospheric CO 2 and global warming is more closely established, carbon emissions taxes could be made rise by $4 to $20 per decade, depending on need.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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