<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Perhaps by coincidence, and perhaps not, 2030 is the year in which total Chinese population is forecast to begin to decline, owing primarily to the “one-child” per family program initiated in the eighties and relaxed slightly in 2013.

In any case, several years will pass before the effectiveness of this latest accord can be expected to have any material effects upon global carbon emissions. Skepticism abounds, not only in the U.S., but in much of Europe as well. Criticism of the U.S.-China Accord has come from what could be called unexpected sources including Lord Browne, former CEO of British Petroleum. To quote:

The targets agreed by President Obama and President Xi will not be achieved with the policies in place. They will require new policies that could reduce the two countries oil demand by more than 17 billion barrels of oil over the next 15 years. Pilita Clark, “Energy Groups Face Existential Climate Threat, Warns ex-BP Chief”, Financial Times , November 19, 2014.

Skeptics, however, should bear in mind that international agreements to reduce damage to the atmosphere and climate are not by any means doomed to failure. A case in point is the Montreal Protocol, signed in that Canadian City in 1987. The purpose of this agreement was to reduce the atmospheric presence of ozone – depleting substances (ODSs) in the stratosphere especially hydrofluorocarbon (HCFC). These substances were adjudged by scientists to be responsible for very harmful depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, especially in polar regions. There the “ozone hole” in the atmosphere was gaping above Antarctica, thereby depleting the ozone layer. Most of the ODSs are also potent greenhouse gases.

The ozone layer is vitally important to humans, animals and plants because it protects life from ultraviolet (UV) radiation from space.

The U.S. and other larger industrialized nations before 1987 were the principal sources of emissions of ODSs. Virtually all emitting nations, including the U.S. were signatories to the Montreal Protocol. After more than a quarter century of experience, the Montreal Protocol may be adjudged successful. While the ozone layer remains in some danger because several ODSs remain in the atmosphere long after emissions end, and some HCFCs in some years (2007-08) have increased at rapid rates, the risks to the layer have been materially reduced by worldwide actions to control the global production and consumption of ODSs since 1997.

The majority of these substances have been phased out of production, while demand for substitutes for HCFCs such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) has increased. This has helped protect the ozone layer, but some of these substances are potent greenhouse gases as well.

In any case, the Montreal Protocol and its amendments since 1997 have served to reduce ozone-depleting substances by about 10 billion metric tons by 2011. By comparison, global emissions of CO 2 exceeded 35 billion tons per year in 2014. The Montreal Protocol, even with its less-than-perfect results, stands as an example of what can be achieved when commitments to agreement on measures for atmospheric protection are firm and widespread.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Economic development for the 21st century' conversation and receive update notifications?