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Chapter 5 and its sections give the definition of nano-science and nano material, gives examples of nano-materials and its external manifestation. Subsequently the classification of nano-materials and formation of stable nano-structure.

Chapter 5_Introduction-Nanomaterials.

The Universe ranges from 10 28 cm to 10 -33 cm. The first Length is the distance from our Earth to the observable Event Horizon of the Universe which is 13.8blightyears(ly) = 4.23313 b parsec(pc) = 1.30622×10 26 m. The second length is Planck’s Length:

Planck’s Length sets the fundamental limit on the accuracy of length measuremment.

As proto-human-society and human society has developed, its capabilities have developed. Its tool materials improved from flint stones to copper to bronze to iron implements to steel to polymers to Silicon and finally to nano-materials. In Table 5.1, we show the development of Proto-human society due to anatomical changes in homo-species. Once modern humans emerged human society has developed both due to the development of relation of production and due to the development of tools of production.

Relation of production has developed from primitive communism to slavery to feudal and to the capitalist society. The modern Capitalist Society is experiencing the labour pains for delivering a Socialistic Society.

The scale of production has evolved from Small Scale Owner Managed Production to Large Scale Corporate Managed Production.

Table 5.1. Stages of development in Proto Human Society and Human Society based on anatomical changes, based on relation of production and based on the development of means of production.

Date(ya) 1 Anatomical 3 Relation of Production Materials used Means of Production
4M AustralopethicusAfarensis Savage&Primitive communism Primitive tools, no hand grip 2 . Roots&fruits gatherer
2.5M Homo-habilis(handy man) Savage&Primitive communism Choppers&Flakes, Oldwan Style Foraging&scavenging
Discovery of fire
1.9M Homo-erectus(erect man) Savage&Primitivecommunism Refined, precisionGrip features developed hunting
800,000 Homo-sapiens(intelligent man) Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Precision Grip matured&tear shaped hand axesDeveloped,so-calledAcheulean style hunting
200,000 Modern humansEmerge in AFRICA Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm hunting
70,000(last ice age begins) Migrate out of Africa and replace all primitive homo-species. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm STONE AGE, , cave-dwelling, refined flint-stone tools hunting
50,000 Modern Humans reachAustralia and get isolated as Australian Aborigines. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
50,000To 40,000 Migration to Asia Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
40,000 to30,000 In;land migration from Asia to Europe Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
Modern humans push toCentral Asia and arrived in the grassy steppes of Himalaya Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
From S.E.Asia and China, migration to Japan&Siberia took place. Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
North Asians migrated to N.America via land bridge across Arctic from Siberia Barbarians&Primitivecommuinsm Stone tools and weapons hunting
10,000 Great delugeModern Humans Barbarians&Civilized Society-Private Property, Monogamous Family, State


Hunting&agriculture for fodder
9,000 Modern Humans Slavery Native Copper used.Smelted Copper used, Mining, Agriculture for grains, artisans


6,000…5,500…5,500… Modern Humans Feudalism Silver,Tin,Bronze. Mining, Agriculture, artisans
3,400 to1800CE Modern Humans


1800CE to 1940CE Modern Humans Capitalism


Industrial Revolution&Large Scale Production
1940-1960CE Modern Humans Capitalism


Factory production
1960CE to present Modern Humans


Computerization, Automation, Robotization&Miniaturization
1980 to present Modern Humans


Miniaturization&System Integration

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Electrical and electronic materials science. OpenStax CNX. May 01, 2014 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11615/1.14
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