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To spot the difference between these two molecules, we need to rely on our previously developed knowledge of electronegativities, molecular geometries, and molecular polarity. HCl is a polar linear molecular because the Cl atom is much more electronegative than the H atom. Si atoms are actually slightly less electronegative than H atoms, suggesting that SiH 4 should also be polar. But, we also recall from our electron domain model that SiH 4 has a symmetric tetrahedral geometry, like CH 4 . As such, like CH 4 , SiH 4 has no molecular dipole moment. From this comparison, we can conclude that, in comparing two molecules with similar dispersion forces, the molecule with a dipole moment will have stronger intermolecular attractions than the molecule without a dipole moment. This explains why, in each period in Figure 5, the Group IV hydride compound always has the lowest boiling point. Each of these compounds has nonpolar molecules due to their symmetry. By contrast, two HCl molecules will have stronger attractions as the positive end of one HCl will be attracted to the negative end of the other HCl, and vice versa.

We can now conclude that molecules attract one another via dispersion forces and, if the molecules are polar, via dipole-dipole attractions. Understanding these two types of intermolecular attractions works well to explain the major patterns observed in Figure 5.

This does not explain the exceptions, however. Why are the boiling points of NH 3 , H 2 O, and HF so abnormally high? Given that these are small mass molecules, we would not expect them to have larger than average dispersion forces. All three are polar molecules, but there is nothing to suggest that there dipole moments are unusually high. There must be a different type of intermolecular attraction that is unique to these three molecules out of this set of molecules.

We need a pattern to analyze. What do these three molecules have in common with each other that the other molecules in Table 1 do not? N, O, and F are all strongly electronegative atoms and are also amongst the smallest atoms in the periodic table. In the Lewis structures for all three molecules, O, N and F all have non-bonded, lone pairs of electrons. These three properties, taken together in a single molecule, must present a uniquely strong intermolecular attraction.

Chemists account for this strong bonding via a model called “hydrogen bonding.” This is a uniquely strong form of dipole-dipole attraction that only occurs when a molecule contains a hydrogen atom bonded to an N atom, an O atom, or an F atom. Due to the strength of the electronegativity of these atoms, the N-H bond or O-H bond or F-H bond is highly polar, meaning that the H atom is almost a bare, positively charged hydrogen nucleus. This strong positive charge on one molecule is in turn strongly attracted to the negatively charged lone pair electrons on the N, O, or F atom of another molecule. This is illustrated in Figure 7.

Note that size seems to be important in hydrogen bonding as well. HF has a much higher boiling point than HCl, indicating that HF has stronger intermolecular attractions. Even though the Cl atom is strongly electronegative and has lone pair electrons in the HCl molecule, the Cl atom is apparently too large to support the uniquely strong dipole-dipole attraction we call hydrogen bonding.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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