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Finding energy: deepwater deposits

Another potential major source of oil and gas for emerging nations are offshore deposits lying under very deep water. These deposits lie under water 10,000 feet deep or more, plus another 10,000 feet under the sea bed. Right to these endowments belong to Brazil, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mozambique, Mexico and others.

These deepwater deposits are especially important for countries such as Mexico. Prospective reserves in deepwater and shale total 115 bbls of oil equivalent. The largest existing Mexican oil fields, such as the giant Cantarell Field, discovered in 1976 has been depleting rapidly since 1995. As a result, total Mexican oil output has decreased by 1 million bbls per day, at a time when Mexico has sizeable subsidies on domestic use of fossil fuels, and declining volumes of exports from oil.

Three features of these deepwater assets will require emerging nations to collaborate with foreign oil companies to reap the benefits. First, exploration and development in these locations will be quite costly: upwards of $1 billion to $3 billion per project. By 2014, deepwater and ultra deepwater hydrocarbon projects totaled $66 billion worldwide. Second, the life cycle for such projects extends over 15 to 25-30 years. Third, exploration costs will be heavy, and will be concentrated within the first 5-7 years of any deepwater project well before any sales of gas or oil. This means that initial cash flows from the undertakings will be negative, perhaps for as long as a decade. Fourth, significant price risks are involved.

The large private multinational oil companies are much better equipped to deal with market risk than are National Oil Companies in developing nations. The former are larger and stronger financially. The private multinations such as Chevron and Exxon take a very long-term view of prices because their investments, especially in deepwater deposit exploration and development, last not for years, but decades. The abrupt 50% fall in crude oil and gas prices in the latter half of 2014 has not materially affected the deepwater investment plans of the companies. Because these companies cannot be certain what will be the price of oil or gas when a major project finally comes on line, the firms build into their business models fluctuating oil prices. Exxon’s business plan tests its investments across a broad range of oil prices, from as low as $40/bbl to as high as $120. (Statement of Exxon CEO Rex Tillerson, January 11, 2015).

Other than perhaps Brazil, none of the emerging nations with rights to deepwater deposits will have sufficient capital to mount ambitious deepwater projects. For example, in deep waters in the Gulf of Mexico belonging to the U.S., over 1,600 wells have been drilled. But on the Mexican-owned part of the Gulf, only 50 wells have been drilled. And none of these countries, Brazil included, possess all of the technology required to successfully carry out the projects.

The life cycle of a deepwater deposit can be illustrated as in Figure 15-9 .

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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