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Here is a summary of the concepts introduced in “Sound Reasoning.” All apply to works of any era or style.

Music is a time-art. It is abstract and non-verbal: its sounds do not have literal or fixed meanings. Amusical performance generally flows unstoppably and cannot be interrupted. In general, composers intend for a musical work toexpress itself fully through its own sounds, without the need for supplementary explanations. Under these conditions, repetition is the basis of musical intelligibility. Pop music tends to rely onliteral repetition, because intelligibility is most immediate, whereas art music focuses on varied and transformed repetition.[ How Music Makes Sense ]

Musical emphasis may created in four main ways:

  • The primary means of emphasis is duration : Because music is a time art, if you want to emphasize something, make it last .
  • Change —such as change of speed, register, texture, etc.—is another means of emphasis. The greater the change, the stronger the emphasis.
  • Extremes —such as loudest and softest, highest and lowest, densest and sparest, fastest and slowest—are a third means of emphasis.
  • Rhetorical reinforcement occurs when emphases of duration, change and extremes are aligned to create a well-marked structural landmark. Strong rhetorical reinforcement promotes clarity . Weak rhetorical reinforcement—when the structure is not supported by coordinated emphases—promotes ambiguity .

A climax is a work’s maximum emphasis , created by the reinforcement of extremes. Highly unrhetorical works tend not to have a climax, because their emphases are out-of-phase from each other. [ Musical Emphasis ]

Form describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. There are two main types of form. An A-typeform consists of a single section; it focuses on continuity . An A/B-type form consists of multiple sections; it focuses on contrast . [ Musical Form ]

Expository statements establish the identity of musical material. Developmental passages put musical material into action . The balance between the expository and the developmental is a crucial expressive feature: The greater theamount of exposition, the greater a work’s repose; the greater the amount of development, the greater a work’s flux.[ Expository and Developmental ]

The overall destiny of a piece of music is a comparison of how the end relates to the beginning. There are three possible destinies: a strong roundtrip, in which the music returns with confidence and security to its origin; a weak roundtrip, in which the music’s return is insecure or incomplete; or a one-way progression, in which the music ends in a far different place than it began. Grasping the overall destiny helps you to understand details within the context of the work’s larger trajectory. [ Overall Destiny ]

When a musical idea or section returns in a composition, it may return identically, in which case time has not had an effect: A literal return speaks to the material’s stability and endurance. On the other hand, if the idea or section is variedor transformed, time has had an effect: The return speaks to the material’s evolution and progress. When transformations occur, you may evaluate whether they strengthened or weakened the material. [ Time's Effect On the Material ]

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Michael's sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. Jan 29, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10400/1.1
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