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The different eras in educational reform are not meant to be seen as isolated reforms that were only evidenced in that time period, but are meant to show the major trend of the educational reform. The reforms should be viewed with an understanding that many reforms often came in place in a gradual manner (Tyack&Cuban, 1995 p. 47). However, the following reforms are shown for each decade in order for the reader to identify educational trends. The preparation of boys for industrial work, correspondence courses, and proper health conditions were the major reforms that impacted education during the 1900-1910 era. During the 1910-1919 era, there was also an emphasis on leisure and working conditions for children. Further the National Education Association supported better salaries for teachers. The 1920’s showed an emphasis for creativity and self-expression as important for children. The 1930’s saw a shift in power bases for education with a shift from only the elite controlling school boards and standards for school buses. The 1940s and the 1950s showed an emphasis on ability grouping as well as a clearer definition of academic subjects. Tyack and Cuban (1995) stated that it was during the 1950s that this increased definition of academic subjects was meant to increase the emphasis on the rigor of courses and especially science, math, and foreign language. During the 1960s the emphasis was on compensatory education and integration of students (Katz, 1975). According to Tyack and Cuban (1995) it was the 1960s where educational leaders found many people gaining educational reform through legislation and the judicial system (p. 53). During the 1960s and 1970s the main emphasis was on science, environment, and ecology, and there was a return to phonics instruction. This focus on a basic education included a focus on competition with individual hard work (Tyack&Cuban, 1995, p. 53). The Department of Education was established by President Carter. The education for all children including those with handicaps was passed in the 1970s. During the 1980s, there was a return to basic subjects, competency assessments, graduation requirements, and college entrance requirements. It was during the 1980s that A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) led the examining of competencies, assessments, graduation requirements, and college entrance requirements. The school reforms emphasized standardized testing and increased academic standards through centralized control (Goodman,1995). Near the end of the 1980’sthere was an emphasis on School-Based Management and decentralized control as part of school restructuring reforms (Wohlstetter&Odden,1992). During the 1990s, content standards and national goals for education became prevalent. During the 2000s, the national involvement in education increased with the requirement of students meeting annual yearly progress. This further increase of national involvement was noted with the chartering of the New American Schools Development Corporation in 1991 and the America’s 2000 Educational strategy supported by President George Bush (Tyack&Cuban, 1995). The role of the federal government in education increased with the requirement of each state to develop standards and assessment to increase academic requirements as measured in grades four, eight, and twelve.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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