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Gertle, Walberg, Welch, and Hattie (2007) found no connection with shared decision making and school reform. Tyack and Cuban (1995) stated that reforms were initiated from outside the local school district and thus, not because of site based management, had little sustainability. Therefore, the history of school reform requires the examination of the interaction of social, economics, and legislation within the United States in order to understand the changes within public schools and the sustainability and policies that directed the reforms.

Methodology

This study extends the body of research regarding school reform in the United States. This research examined past school reform using a discourse analysis of text, specifically Presidential speeches and legislative acts with school reform during the different eras over the last 100 years of United States’ history. The questions that guided this study were: 1) What prompted legislators to pass acts to change public education? 2) What external pressures and political climate for legislators impacted passing school reform policies during the different eras? 3) What did the leaders in the United States say about educational reform? and 4) How did the language of the presidents and legislation impact public school reform?

The design of this study is qualitative research using methods of historical research and discourse analysis. The artifacts used in this study were presidents’ inaugural addresses, department of education directors’ speeches, legislative acts, newspaper articles, and journal articles of the different eras. This comparative historical research aims at an analysis of small number of cases with the presidents’ inaugural speeches along with legislative acts of different eras to explain school reform. Historical research tends to examine a few cases to look at the past experiences within the historical context in order to understand present reforms.

McMillan and Schumacher (2006) identified the major steps of qualitative comparative historical design. A major method was the collection of archival data of official documents. The four major steps used in this qualitative comparative historical design were the development of the events of presidents’ inaugural addresses and legislation that impacted school reform. The second step was to examine these events from national impacts and not from individual states. Third there was an inclusion of similarities and differences using interpretive historical sociology. Then the final step was the proposed explanations of the school reform from an analysis of the policy development from the information gathered.

The Presidents’ inaugural speeches are linked to the time. The language of the presidents is linked to the historical and social context and can’t be isolated on its own (El-daly, 2010). Open coding was used to analyze the documents in the speeches, texts, legislative acts, and articles to compare for similarities and differences (Corbin&Strauss, 2008). Codes that did not relate to the coding schemes were deleted. The primary emphasis was a connection between the written words and events that would help define the phenomenon of school reform. The scale of the comparison is a large task and very complex because each of the different eras impacts the social system as well as the political system. However, the separation of the factors was necessary for the analysis but then the causal relationships were reconnected when examining the impact of those factors to the public school reform. Causal relationships are difficult to support and yet the examination of time order helps to show how there could be an association between cause and effect in the context of the social, political and economic contexts related to the school reforms. The pattern of concepts and codes that resulted from the analysis provided a profile for each decade. The patterns then were connected to potential future conversations about what public education can be in the United States.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
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Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
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Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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