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National innovation systems

Bromley’s recollections of his Bush administration years contain not one mention of the word “innovation.” Bromley, op. cit . Well before the end of the Clinton administration, however, “innovation” would become a buzzword. During the 1980s, a handful of scholarshad begun to investigate ways in which innovation originated, grew, and ultimately succeeded or failed. In 1993, the economists Richard R. Nelson andNathan Rosenberg published their influential National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis , which argued that university and industrial research, and the federal agencies that supporteduniversity research, were not the only institutions required for successful international competitiveness. Richard R. Nelson and Nathan Rosenberg, eds., National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993). Nor was a robust scientific research system a necessary or adequate foundation for competitiveness. What was required, they argued, was anational innovation policy.

No single event in the Bush administration led to this scholarly interest in national innovation systems. Rather, it had beenincreasingly clear since the late 1970s that the so-called linear model expounded in Science—the Endless Frontier was inadequate. That model assumed something like a conveyer belt, from whichthe results of basic research were picked up and used by applied researchers who passed them on for engineering development of a useful process or product.However, while the Bush report may have tacitly assumed that such products wouldeasily be commercialized or used for military purposes, it was clear that this did not happen automatically. Rather, there were other, heretofore neglectedfactors that had to be involved: e.g., the necessary capital to proceed from a pilot model to full-scale production, as well as marketing expenses. In short,research and development were insufficient. What was required was a broader innovation system that encompassed research and development, and morebesides.

Although no single event in the first Bush administration triggered these academic studies, these innovation studies had anotable impact on the formulation of science policy beginning in the early days of the succeeding Clinton administration.

In addition to rejecting the implicit Bush linear model, Nelson and Rosenberg noted that a problem originating inindustrial research often stimulated new basic research programs in universities. Moreover, they asserted, advances in commercial and militarytechnology very often relied not on breakthroughs in research but rather on incremental gains. Since the days of the Wright Brothers, for example, advancesin the aircraft industry often were based on incremental improvements gained through trial and error.

The study of innovation systems explores such questions as: How does technical advance proceed? What are the key processes?Who are the key actors? How does technical innovation translate into economic growth? Among the indispensable institutions in the United States are researchuniversities, industrial research laboratories, and the principal federal agencies that conduct and support R&D. Beyond that, links between industrial research laboratories and company operating units are essential; this is whyBell Labs, IBM, and Xerox all broke up their autonomous research labs in the 1980s and melded them with their operating units. Similarly, scholars came torecognize that tax and regulatory authorities played as vital a role in innovation systems as did direct federal R&D support.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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