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Science and foreign relations in the reagan years

During the early 1980s, competition with Japan intensified. American companies accused Japanese manufacturers and the Japanese government of unfair trade practices in microelectronics, tools, and automobiles, among other areas, and trade negotiations between the two countries grew increasingly acrimonious. When the U.S.-Japan umbrella agreement on scientific cooperation came due for renewal in 1986, officials in the Office of the Trade Negotiator, the Commerce Department, and OSTP insisted that more stringent conditions be added, on the grounds that cooperative research in science and engineering could provide Japan with proprietary information that would undercut American competitiveness. They also pressed for greater access for American scientists to Japanese research facilities. One OSTP official also insisted that Japanese engineers cease and desist from publishing in their own language on the grounds that that constituted a trade barrier. (Engineers, unlike academic scientists, frequently publish in national rather than international journals when their work deals with specific local problems.)

The renegotiated umbrella agreement, completed in 1988, created a Joint Committee on Access, a post-doctoral fellowship program for American scientists in Japan, and a summer institute program in Japan, to begin in 1990, for American graduate students. The program came to be so highly regarded that by 2009 there would be six more participating countries: Korea, Taiwan, China, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore.

Decline of ostp

Senior Carter administration OSTP officials had hoped to institutionalize the office as a non-political entity that would maintain continuity from administration to administration, as did OMB. Their model was the Office of Science and Technology through the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon years. But the incoming Reagan administration had little interest in a presidential science advisory system, and by the time Keyworth assumed the OSTP directorship in July 1981, it was staffed almost entirely by junior level officers, several serving as little more than caretakers. Within two years, even the junior Carter-era appointees had departed, reinforcing the impression that politics and ideological purity had become important criteria for staff selection. Staff allotments, begun under Carter, were further cut under Reagan, and the office failed to deliver requested reports to key congressional committees, who responded by further cutting the OSTP budget. D. Allan Bromley, The President’s Scientists (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), xx. . This led to more failure to produce reports and additional staff reductions. As a result, OSTP came to rely heavily on temporary detailees from other federal agencies. By 1987, the General Accounting Office (GAO) was reporting, “OSTP does not, in practice, have the authority or responsibility in the budget process that was intended in Public Law 94-282 [the OSTP Act of 1976].” Congressional Research Service, op. cit. As a consequence, “we have not seen any evidence under the current administration that the Director of OSTP has enough influence with agency heads to reconcile conflicting views on cross-agency issues... This would require [also] strong presidential support.” Thus, “OSTP studies and reports on issues and opportunities in specific topical areas but generally does not address the crosscutting issues among the fields of science and engineering.”

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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