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If Golden and his contributors hoped to reverse Carter’s course, they were destined for disappointment. Ronald Reagan, who regarded the science advisory system as an even lower priority than had Carter, viewed it as nothing more than a special interest lobby.

In June 1981, Reagan nominated George A. (Jay) Keyworth II as his science advisor and OSTP director. Keyworth had been a weapons physicist at the Los Alamos National Laboratory throughout his career and was virtually unknown outside of the defense science community, and his nomination did little to allay academic anxiety regarding the Reagan administration’s interest in science. Nor did the fact that he had been suggested to the president by the hawkish Edward Teller, whom many establishment scientists had still not forgiven for his role in the Oppenheimer affair. However, by December 1985, when he resigned both positions, Keyworth had won over a good many skeptics.

President Ronald Reagan and George (Jay) Keyworth in the Oval Office. Courtesy of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library.

Recognizing the problem, Keyworth made special efforts to establish good working relations with both the university-based scientific community and the federal R&D line agencies. In consultation with the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine, Keyworth arranged a series of annual research briefings in areas COSEPUP identified; and on the advice of the National Academy of Engineering, he strongly endorsed the Presidential Young Investigator awards, prestigious post-doctoral appointments intended to encourage outstanding PhDs in science, and particularly engineering, to pursue academic research careers.

However, in his first appearance before a large scientific audience (the April 1981 annual American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Science and Technology Policy Colloquium in Washington, DC), he made it clear that he intended to be a White House team player rather than an emissary from the scientific community, and that he had no intention of recommending the restoration of PSAC. Barbara J. Culliton, “Keyworth Gives First Speech,” Science (July 7, 1981), 183-84.

Much of the initial anxiety about Reagan’s support for the broad-based national research system abated with the submission of his proposed budget to Congress in January 1982. As anticipated, substantial increases in defense-related R&D were proposed, along with sharp cuts in non-defense applied research and development, on the grounds that the latter should be left to the private sector. But the budget did propose substantial increases for basic research support, much to the relief of university-based scientists, and these increases continued over the next three years.

In April 1984, Keyworth emphasized the administration’s commitment to basic research, noting with approval the elimination of costly energy demonstration projects that were better left to the private sector. G.A. Keyworth, Jr., “Four Years of Reagan Science Policy: Notable Shift in Priorities,” Science (April 6, 1984), 9-13. Two of these demonstration projects were international collaborative efforts, one involving Germany, the other Japan. Their elimination provided seeming evidence for the well-worn charge that the United States was an unreliable foreign partner. Although such programs had been cut back significantly during the Carter administration, they disappeared almost completely under Reagan. Keyworth noted that total federal R&D obligations had increased from $35 billion in fiscal year 1981 to $53.1 billion in fiscal year 1985, with most of the increase in defense R&D, which grew from $16.5 billion in fiscal year 1981 to $34.2 billion in fiscal year 1985. Total federal obligations for basic research increased from $5.1 billion in fiscal year 1981 to $7.9 billion in fiscal year 1985.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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