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Transitioning from PK-12 administration to tenure track positions in institutions of high education, along with mentoring, has received much attention within the education arena. This transition has many different facets identified in research. Sorcinelli and Austin (2006) identified several challenges for new faculty that included tenure expectations, performance expectations, the culture of the institution of higher education, the understanding of the department structure and the organizational structure, and balancing of roles and responsibilities of the position, as well as balancing work and personal life. Boice (2000) also found that new faculty often experiences a sense of loneliness and lower stimulation in their new roles as assistant professors. Each of these areas are presented for further exploration in this review.

Tenure expectations.

Many researchers recommend that new faculty need to make sure they understand the criteria in tenure and promotion (Mabrouk, 2006). Some authors have determined that tenure expectations are divided evenly between research and teaching with less emphasis on service; yet there is usually confusion by new faculty on the tenure process (Greene et al., 2008). One author even recommended that candidates actually obtain written clarification of expectations for tenure (Hamilton, 2005). Unclear expectations for tenure have shown to lower collegiality (Mullen&Forbes, 2000).

Performance expectations.

Interviews of tenure track faculty showed that new faculty need feedback on teaching and clear expectations (Eddy&Gaston-Gayles, 2003). Performance is usually examined in three major areas of research, teaching, and service. Often times the area of service is less valued as part of the tenure process (Park, 1992). Tenured professors shared that increased service on university governance and operations helped them gain more knowledge on expectations and increased their own learning on performance expectations at the university (Neumann&Terosky, 2007). However, other researchers recommend that new faculty refrain from too much service early in their higher education careers because it will take away from the major responsibilities of teaching and research (Mabrouk, 2006). Many authors determined that more priority is given to teaching and research (Greene et al., 2008) in expectations. Further, Williams (2008) found a challenge for departments as well as faculty was the quantification of research and service in performance expectations. The performance expectations also have some conflicting values as researchers are expected to single author some of their research but also show collaboration with peers (Nir&Silberstein-Levy, 2006).

Culture of campus, department structure and organizational structure

Magill (1997) defined career socialization as the process of learning the values and norms of an institution which is the culture of a campus. There are many changes in the department and organizational structure at higher education that is different from PK-12 administration. One of the major differences is a realization that decision making is not at the new faculty’s level (Walker&Sharp, 2000).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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