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    Separation anxiety disorder

  • The essential characteristic of this disorder is excessive distress upon separation from primary attachment figures.
  • Manifestations of that distress may include worry about caretakers being harmed, reluctance or refusal to go to school or be separated from caregivers, fear about being alone, repeated nightmares incorporating separation themes, and frequent somatic complaints linked to separation.
  • Children with separation anxiety disorder frequently present with symptoms of other anxiety disorders and often report many specific fears, as well as feelings of sadness and of not being loved.
  • The cause of Separation Anxiety Disorder varies, it could be precipitated by a stressful event such as a significant loss, separation from loved ones, or exposure to danger. The disorder may stem from an insecure attachment to the primary caregiver, or it may occur in families in which a parent is emotionally dependent on the child, and had been associated with enmeshed family relationships.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder can be classified as a phobic response (usually because there is a fear of leaving the primary caregiver but also might be related to fear of social situations). Consequently as a treatment the behavioral technique of systematic desensitization is good as it is highly effective in the treatment of phobias. That includes gradually bringing the child closer and closer to the school building and gradually extending his/her time in school.
  • In young children, Separation Anxiety disorder is often characterized by features of depression, including crying, sulkiness, irritability, and a sad appearance.

This problem is more complicated than the child simply being too attached to their parents. They would probably need some sort of replacement for the emotion their parents give them. So I would think that if you transition the child to be more attached to his or her peers then they could begin to separate themselves from the parent. Or maybe it could be possible to maintain the level of attachment to the parent but not suffer the negative consequences of leaving them. The anxiety and fear caused by leaving the parent is a substitute emotion instead of receiving emotion from the situation they are currently in, or at least they could generate emotion from having their parents gone in a less anxiety related way. I am saying that the anxiety generated by the child works to provide a similar type of support that the parent gives because being anxious about the parent not being there is basically a substitute for the parent not being there. It isn't necessarily that they are too attached - they just might not be capable of finding an appropriate substitute emotion that could come from other people, activities, or maybe they could just think about it differently - possibly think of it as missing the parent instead of getting pain and anxiety from the loss.

    Depression

  • While reported feelings of sadness are characteristic of depression across all age ranges, children are more likely to exhibit externalized behaviors as an expression of their feelings.
  • Carlson and Kashani Carlson, G. A., and Kashani, J. H. (1988). Phenomenology of major depression from childhood through adulthood: Analaysis of three stuidies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(10), 1222-1225. (1988), for example, found that depressed preschoolers typically displayed a sad appearance, sulkiness, crying, and social withdrawal but also tended to somatize (somatize: definition - To express a psychological process through physical symptoms such as pain or anxiety; to have a psychosomatic reaction to (e.g. a situation)) their depression and complain of physical aches and pains.
  • Children and adolescents may show more anxiety and anger, fewer vegetative symptoms, and less verbalization of hopelessness than adults.
  • IPT (interpersonal psychotherapy), adapted for adolescents (IPT-A) appears promising for the treatment of adolescent depression. About IPT-A - depression affects people's relationships and these relationships further affect our mood. The IPT model identifies four general areas in which a person may be having relationship difficulties: 1) grief after the loss of a loved one; 2) conflict in significant relationships; 3) difficulties adapting to changes in relationships or life circumstances; and 4) difficulties stemming from social isolation. The IPT therapist helps identify areas in need of skill-building to improve the client's relationships and decrease the depressive symptoms. Over time, the client learns to link changes in mood to events occurring in his/her relationships, communicate feelings and expectations for the relationships, and problem-solve solutions to difficulties in the relationships.

So children get so upset about being depressed they show physical symptoms. That makes sense that they would show that more than adults considering how they are more energetic. The physical symptoms could distract the child from depression, loss of energy is a symptom for depression as well, however. Loss of energy in adults and children could be a way of them retreating from the world so they don't have to deal with it so much in a high energy state. Anti-psychotic medications also tend to lower energy levels. This symptom probably helps calm the person down and, by making putting a more relaxed state, they can deal with the world easier. That information gets more complicated when you consider that children show more anxiety and anger, exhibit externalized behaviors as an expression of their feelings, and somatize their depression and experience physical aches and pains. So why is it that children (largely (vegetative symptoms are still a part of depression for children) become more active from depression but adults become more vegetative? Maybe in general children respond to the world actively and physically and adults respond more intellectually because they are more mature. A child gets upset and sulks, cries, and socially withdraws (hides) while adults simply become vegetative / relax and give up (they verbalize hopelessness more).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A self help and improvement book: useful psychology information (an integration of personality, social, interaction, communication and well-being psychology). OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11139/1.47
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