<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Now that we know the frequency with which we expect A and a alleles to appear in the offspring generation when all individuals in a population have an equal probability of surviving and producing surviving offspring, let's explicitly and consciously compare them to the frequency with which these same alleles appear in the parent population and, finally, reflect on the question titling this section.

a. How does the probability (likelihood) that an allele will make it into the offspring generation compare to the frequency with which that allele occurs in the parental generation?

b. Compare your responses to Problems 1, 2a, 2c, and 3a. What do they suggest about the relationship between the frequency with which an allele appears in the parental generation, its probability of appearing in parental generation gametes, and ultimately its frequency in the offspring generation when mating is random? Why? Please explain.

As is hopefully now clear, when all individuals in a population have an equal probability of surviving and reproducing successfully the probability that an allele ends up in a fertilization event and thus, in the offspring generation is equal to the frequency with which that allele appears in the parent generation. That is, when no agents of evolution are acting on a population, the allele frequencies observed in the offspring generation will be the same as those observed in the population producing them.

In reality, would you expect offspring generation allele frequencies to always be perfectly identical to those of the parental generation when mating is random? Why or why not? Please explain.

Of course in practice, all populations are subject to genetic drift (an agent of evolution) where, just by chance, some individuals will reproduce more frequently than others making a disproportionate contribution to the next generation. This effect will be most pronounced in small populations, like that in the example above, and least in very large ones.

Test your understanding by returning to the scenario depicted in Problem 3 of the previous section. It turns out that the allele associated with increased fertility, referred to as H2, is found in 21% of the loci of people of European descent.

a. If this population is not evolving with respect to this allele, how frequently should this allele occur in this population 200 years from now? Why? Please explain.

b. Draw a figure (graph) illustrating your prediction from part a. Please make sure to label your axes and include a figure legend .

a. In the absence of any evolutionary processes including genetic drift operating on this population, this allele should still occur in 21% of the population 200 years from now. This is expected because the H2 allele currently occurs in 21% of the population's loci, consequently 21% of all 'buckets' in the population contain this allele, leading 21% of the gametes involved in fertilization events to contain the H2 allele, causing the H2 allele to occur in 21% of the loci in the next generation. This will be repeated generation after generation for 200 years in the absence of an evolutionary force.

Expected frequency of the H2 allele over a 200 year period if the European population is not evolving with respect to this allele.

    Definitions

  • frequency - the number of times an event or observation, for example a particular measurement or condition like blue eyes, is observed in a collection of events or observations like those comprising a sample, population or study. In this statistical sense, a frequency is equivalent to a proportion. For example, the frequency of a particular allele is equal to the number of times that allele is observed in a population over the total number of alleles for that locus in the population. Can be expressed as a fraction, a percentage, a decimal, or a probability.
  • genetic equilibrium - state of a population in which allele frequencies remain unchanged from one generation to the next.
  • legend - a one or two sentence description of the variables depicted in a figure (graph).

    Works cited

  • Stefansson, H., Helgason, A., Thorleifsson, G. et al. 2005. A common inversion under selection in Europeans. Nature Genetics . 37:129-137.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation. OpenStax CNX. Oct 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10472/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask