# 0.1 Why are allele frequencies maintained across generations when  (Page 3/4)

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## So why do equal probabilities of survival and reproduction reproduce parental allele frequencies in the offspring generation?

Hopefully the answer to this question is more obvious now that you understand that an equal likelihood of surviving and producing surviving offspring is really about each individual having an equal chance of providing one of the two gametes to every fertilization event that occurs in a population and produces a surviving offspring. Nothing is operating to bias the chances of an individual contributing a gamete to each and every fertilization event and every individual's two alleles have an equal (50:50) chance of ending up in the gamete involved in fertilization. But in case its not quite clear, let's explore the issue a bit further.

To do this, re-examine the pool of potential gametes depicted as buckets in the cartoon above (which is repeated below for your benefit) and answer the questions that follow.

a. If a gamete is randomly selected from this population, as happens when each individual has an equal chance of surviving and reproducing, what is the likelihood (probability) that it contains an A allele?

b. Explain the reasoning behind your response to question a.

Much as there is a 13 in 20 chance of blindly pulling a gold chip out of a bag of 20 chips of which 13 are gold and 7 blue (and they differ in no other way), there is a 13 in 20 or 65% chance that the gamete would contain an A allele, if a a gamete were randomly selected from the population above (13/20 = 65/100 = 0.65*100 = 65%). Buckets of A alleles are nearly twice as common as buckets of a alleles. Consequently when reproduction is random, as happens when every individual has an equal probability of surviving and reproducing, any randomly selected parent is nearly twice as likely to be carrying an A allele as opposed to an a allele.

Now consider the following questions.

a. If 15 random matings took place in this population, requiring a total of 30 gametes to be randomly selected, what is the likelihood that each randomly selected gamete contains an A allele? How about an a allele?

b. Explain the reasoning supporting your response to question a.

c. Imagine all 30 of the gametes resulting from 15 random matings displayed on a piece of paper in front of you, how frequently would you expect the A allele to occur in this collection? The a allele? Why? Please explain.

d. Review your responses to questions a and c. What do they tell you about how likely (frequently) the A allele is to appear in the offspring population? The a allele? Why? Please explain.

Ideally, your responses to questions a and c were identical. For each of the 15 random mating events, the probability that a contributed gamete contains an A allele is 13/20 (65%) and an a allele 7/20 (35%). This is true because each gamete selection event is independent; the allele one gamete contains does not in anyway influence what allele the second gamete of a fertilization event will contain if mating is random. (This is not true is mating is not random. Can you provide an example?)

Since the above is true for each individual mating event, the overall allelic composition of the resulting offspring generation will simply reflect the probability associated with picking each allele during each random gamete selection event summed for all 30 events. Therefore, on average 65% of the 30 alleles will be A and 35% a in the offspring generation if mating is truly random.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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